- •Mortality during disaster is high in vulnerable groups due to their compromised immunity.
- •Vulnerable population could be benefitted by providing nutraceutical compounds enriched disaster relief foods.
- •Phytochemical-enriched ready-to-eat products can be used for additional immunomodulatory benefits in disaster relief.
3. Effect of disaster on health status of population
4. Disaster-relief food product considerations for vulnerable group with compromised immunity
4.1 Nutritional requirement of the vulnerable group with compromised immunity
|Infant (0–6 month)||Exclusive breastfeeding||Zinc||10 mg of zinc dose per day for 10–14 days||Reduces diarrhea and restore water-electrolyte balance|
|Vitamin A (if measles)||50,000 IU one dose in 24 h||If measles to provide additional source of immunity|
|Infant (6–11 months)||Breastfeed plus 550 kcal||Iron||Dose of 2 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 months||After 6 months it is vital to maintain iron stores in the body. Iron helps in the restoration of Hb levels or blood loss from parasitic infection.|
|Vitamin A||10, 000 IU one dose per month||Vitamin A helps in providing immunity against viruses, protects from diseases like diarrhea, night blindness and exophthalmia.|
|Zinc||20 mg per day for 10–14 days||Zinc reduces the incidence of diarrhea, pneumonia, protein synthesis, cell growth and differentiation|
|Older infant (12–23 months)||Breastfeed plus 550 kcal||Vitamin A||20,000 IU Every 4–6 months||Eliminate vitamin A deficiency in the geographical prevalent area.|
|Zinc||Zinc dose 25 mg/day for 10–14 days||Improvement in gastrointestinal health.|
|PEM in infants||+500 to +700 kcal||Vitamin A (<6 months) (6–12 months) (>12 months)||50,000 IU/day 100,000 IU/day 200,000 IU/day||To improve vitamin A bio-availability, reduce mortality due to infection and sever acute malnutrition. To eradicate eye-related problems|
|Iron||Dose of 2 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 months|
|Pregnant woman (anemic women)||+285 kcal||Iron||30–60 mg elementary iron daily||To prevent iron deficiency at the gestational period and moderate to severe anemia.|
|Folic acid||0.4 mg of folic acid daily||Folic acid prevents neural tube defect and also improves maternal and fetal outcomes.|
|Calcium (area low in dietary Calcium)||1.5–2.0 gm/day||Reduce pre-eclampsia.|
|Vitamin A||10,000 IU/day||Vitamin A helps in cellular and skeleton development in fetus, immunity against infection.|
|Pregnant non-anemic women||+285 kcal||Iron||120 mg elementary iron, once/week|
|Folic acid||2.8 mg, once/week|
|Vitamin A||10,000 IU/day|
|Lactating woman (HIV positive)||+500 kcal||Iron and folic||Same as pregnant women||Maintenance and development of the maternal iron store.|
|Vitamin A||20,0000 IU/dose||Provides immunity to infant and mother and prevent vitamin A deficiency.|
|Iodine||250 μg/day 400 μg/year||Provision of iodine to infant exclusively on breastfeeding for growth and maintenance.|
|Antiretroviral drugs||In exclusive breast feeding period||Improves neonatal outcomes and prevention of transmission of virus in infant body.|
|Elderly (+60 years)||<2100 kcal||fortified blended food||25 g per package||Fulfill dietary micronutrient deficiency.|
|Nutrients||Child (6–59 months)||Adults||Pregnant women||Lactating women|
|Vitamin A (μg)||400||500||100||350|
|Vitamin C (mg)||30||28||20||20|
|Riboflavin B2 (mg)||0.5||1.4||0.1||0.3|
|Folic acid (μg)||150||160||250||100|
|Vitamin D (μg)||5||3.8||7.5||7.5|
4.2 Identification of health-promoting constituents and ingredient selection for vulnerable group with compromised immunity
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4.2.2 Probiotic and prebiotics
5. Nutraceutical compound enriched disaster relief food for vulnerable group with compromised immunity
|Food product||Main ingredients||Composition (100 g)||Energy (kcal)||Carbohydrate (g)||Protein (g)||Fats (g)||Micronutrients||References|
|Proso millet and Snakehead fish biscuit||Proso millet, koya, tapioca flour||40 and 10 respectively||503.3||56.3||12.5||26.3||RBK Anandito et al., 2015|
|White oyster mushroom biscuit||White oyster mushroom with palm oil||25||241.5||56.7||13.1||22.6||Calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium.||Cornelia et al., 2019|
|Wheat whey protein biscuits||Wheat flour and whey protein concentrates||90 and 10 respectively||360.3||65.67||20.12||1.91||magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and sodium||Ahmed et al., 2019|
|Locust powder insect based Silkworm powder base biscuit||Silkworm powder, locust powder, high protein quality maize, orange-fleshed sweet potato||45, 120 and 36 g respectively||17.6||vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, potassium, iron and phosphorus||Akande et al., 2020|
|Energy dense rice biscuit||Broken rice or unparboiled milled rice flour, sagu powder, rice bran oil, xanthan gum||30–35 g rice flour||559||4.7||10||36||Zinc, iron, calcium and phosphate.||Shozib et al., 2018|
|Energy dense rice cake||550||48||10||30||zinc, calcium and phosphate|
|Plantain cookies||Plantain flour and bambara groundnut protein concentrate||170 and 30 g respectively||458.6||48.3||14.6||23.4||Kabari et al., 2015|
|Banarsi bar||Sweet potato flour with BAL, omega-3, omega-6, iron and zinc||0.1% of BAL, Fortified with 98 mg omega-3, 1.9/gm omega-6, 5 mg zinc oxide, 6 mg ferrous sulphate||omega-3, omega-6, iron and zinc||Rachmat et al., 2019|
|Nutri-bar||Dried apricot paste, roasted barley powder, roasted chickpea powder||8, 1.5, 1.5 g respectively||339.8||9.4||6.8||Zahra et al., 2014|
|Red rice flour and yellow pumpkin flour bar||Red rice flour and yellow pumpkin flour||50 and 50 g||144.2||26||2.1||4.5||Calcium, phosphorous, vitamin A, C and B1.||Miranti et al., 2016|
|Nike flour bar||Nixtamalised cornmeal, nike powder and corn flour||2.77, 6.69 and 9.37 respectively||469.8||64.4||7.1||20.2||Calcium and niacin||Kasim et al., 2017|
|Mangrove bar||Mangrove flour, broccoli flour and soybean flour||495||60.4||3.8||24.2||Fatmah et al., 2021|
|Mushroom moringa leaf soup||Soy flour, mushroom and moringa leaf powder||10,5 and 8.5 g respectively||386.7||58.8||16.3||6.3||Vitamin D, C, sodium, potassium, manganese, iron and zinc.||Farzana et al., 2017|
|Fish powder soup||Fish powder and corn flour||10 and 34 g||65.7||9.3||1.4||Rahman et al., 2012|
|Super cereal plus CSB+ (acute malnutrition in 6–23 months children)||Corn/wheat/rice soya, milk powder, sugar, oil, vitamin and minerals.||100–200 g||394–787||16–33||10–20||WFP (2013)|
|Super cereal plus (acute malnutrition in pregnant lactating women)||corn/wheat/soya/rice and vitamin and mineral mix||100–200 g||376–752||15–31||8–16|
|Plumpy'sup (moderate acute malnutrition)||Peanut, sugar, whey, vegetable oil, milk, soy protein, cocoa and vitamin and mineral||92 g sachet||500||13||31|
|Wawa Mum (children 6–23 months suffering from acut malnutrition||Chickpea, sugar, vitamin, mineral, vegetable oil, milk powder and soya lecithin||100 g sachet||520||13||29|
|Acha Mum (children 6–59 months suffering from moderate acute malnutrition)||Chickpea, sugar, vitamin, mineral, vegetable oil, milk powder and soya lecithin||100 g sachet||520||13||29|
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