The status of nutrition and COVID-19
|Nutrition type||Sample size||Outcome||Country||Reference|
|vitamin A (research article)||40 hospitalized patients and 47 age-matched convalescent as the control group||Reduced plasma levels of vitamin A correlated significantly with higher levels of inflammatory markers (ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP)) and markers of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (reduced LDH, lymphocyte count). Significantly lower Vitamin A levels were observed in hospitalized patients compared with convalescent persons. Among hospitalized cases, significantly lower vitamin A levels were observed in critically ill patients than moderately ill patients. Plasma level of vitamin A below 0.2 mg/L was shown to be significantly related with the development of mortality and ARDS.||Germany||Tepasse et al. 2021 [|
|vitamin A (bioinformatics study)||393 SARS-CoV-2-associated genes and 122 VA-pharmacological action genes.||Mechanisms of action related with vitamin A functions against SARS-CoV-2 based on bioinformatics findings include inhibition of inflammatory reaction, enrichment of immunoreaction and biological processes associated with reactive oxygen species. Besides, seven core targets of vitamin A against COVID-19, including IL10, MAPK1, EGFR, MAPK14, ICAM1, PRKCB and CAT were identified. Based on this bioinformatics-based report, mechanisms of vitamin A and functions of anti-SARS-CoV-2 suggest vitamin A as a potent therapeutic option for COVID-19.||China||Li et al. 2020 [|
|vitamin B (review)||Vitamin B helps in building and maintenance of healthy immune system, prevention or reduction of COVID-19 symptoms and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Poor nutritional status is a predisposing factor getting infections more easily. Thus, a balanced diet is essential for immuno-competence. Seeking for cost-effective and safe adjunct or therapeutic strategies to act as anti-thrombotic agents and suppress aberrant immune activation with its subsequent cytokine storm is essential. Adequate vitamin intake is fundamental for proper body function and also strengthening of immune system. Vitamin B particularly modulates immune response through downregulation of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduction of breathing difficulty and gastrointestinal discomforts, prevention of hypercoagulability, improvement of outcomes and reduction of hospital length of stay in COVID-19 patients.||UAE||Shakoor et al. 2021 [|
|Vitamins (cohort)||43 consecutive patients ≥50 year||After separate age or blood pressure adjustment in a multivariate analysis, intervention group retained protective significance. Fewer treated patients required oxygen therapy during their hospitalization than controls. DMB exposure was observed to be associated with odds ratios for intensive care support and oxygen therapy or both on multivariate and univariate analyses, respectively.||Singapore||Tan et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin C (review)||21 studies||Vitamin C has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects which diminishes chance of tissue damage related to oxidative stress and suppress significant inflammatory responses recognized as cytokine storm. By stimulating lymphocyte proliferation of and increasing production of interferon, vitamin C is able to improve host antiviral immune responses. Vitamin C consumption in critically ill patients and those with severe sepsis and or septic shock was seen in previous clinical trials to decrease vasopressor requirements, improve survival and decrease hospital length of stay. Treatment of COVID-19 patients using high dose of Intravenous (IV) vitamin C in the United States and China have demonstrated promising results. Indeed, no adverse effect was reported using short-term high dose of vitamin C.||UK||Abobaker et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin C (randomized placebo-controlled trial)||308 adults diagnosed with COVID-19||IV vitamin C exerts advantages in terms of availability, safety, stability and cost compared with other therapeutic modalities.||China||Liu et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (Systematic review)||34 studies||In our primary analysis on 31 peer-reviewed observational studies, a positive trend was observed between serum 25(OH)D level <20 ng/ml and not statistically significant enhanced risk of ICU admission, invasive or non-invasive ventilation, mortality, or SARS-CoV-2 positivity. In COVID-19 positive cases, mean 25(OH)D levels were 5.9 ng/ml significantly lower compared to COVID-19 negative patients, albeit there was very low certainty of the evidence. Only 32 clinical trial protocols were identified in which just three of them have published data to-date. The trials administer vitamin D doses of 357 to 60,000 IU/day, from one week to 12 months. Eight mega trials evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D in outpatient cases. A significant reduction in ICU admission using calcifediols vs. placebo revealed through a pilot trial with an unclear certainty of the evidence. Supplementation with daily cholecalciferol (60,000 IU) showed by another small trial to decrease fibrinogen levels without having any impact on CRP, D-dimer and procalcitonin levels compared to placebo. The third trial did not show any impact of supplementation with vitamin D on COVID-19 related outcomes.||UK||Bassatne et al. 2021 [|
|Vitamin D (Systematic review)||9 studies||Of nine reviewed studies, seven (77.8%) demonstrated the correlation between vitamin D status and COVID-19 prognosis and mortality. Most articles demonstrated that plasma vitamin D status could determine the possibility of catching coronavirus and its mortality and severity. Thus, maintained of appropriate plasma levels of vitamin D through its supplementation or sunshine exposure is recommended to cope with the pandemic.||Ethiopia||Yisak et al. 2021 [|
|Vitamins and mineral (review)||There were a few investigations which provide direct evidence regarding associations between vitamin D, selenium, zinc and COVID-19. Adequate supply of selenium, zinc, and vitamin D is necessary to resist other viral infections, to improve immune function, and reduce inflammation. Nutrition intervention securing an adequate status has been stated to protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - coronavirus-2) and mitigate the disease course of COVID-19 infection.||Norwegian||Alexander et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review and correlation study)||12 studies||There was a significant negative correlation (P= 0.033) between COVID-19 cases per one million populations and mean vitamin D levels in European countries. However, in these countries the correlation between vitamin D and COVID-19 related death was not significant. There was an observed correlation between vitamin D and COVID-19 related severity and mortality in some retrospective studies, while other investigations observed no correlation after adjustment of other confounding variables. Several studies indicated to the roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of pneumonia and acute viral respiratory tract infections including direct inhibition of viral replication or through anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory approaches. Therefore, high risk patients for vitamin D deficiency during this global pandemic should be supplemented with vitamin D to maintain optimal levels of circulating 25(OH)D (75–125 nmol/L). Conclusively, there is not enough evidence regarding association between severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection and vitamin D levels. Thus, further cohort studies and randomized control trials are needed to test this hypothesis.||Bangladesh||Ali et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||Pervasive actions of vitamin D on different organ systems raised different probable interactions between it and mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 virus infects humans. By the way, for getting more conclusive results, further research is yet needed.||USA||Bilezikian et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||47 studies||Deficiency in vitamin D contributes to acute respiratory distress syndrome with enhanced case fatality rate by age and chronic disease comorbidity and both are associated with lower concentration of 25(OH)D. In order to reduce infection risk, people at risk of infection by influenza and/or COVID-19, taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH) D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d is recommended. The goal should be to raise 25(OH) D concentrations above 40–60 ng/mL (100–150 nmol/L). For treatment of infected people with COVID-19, higher doses of vitamin D3 might be useful. Large population studies and randomized controlled trials should be conducted to asses these recommendations.||USA||Grant et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||Vitamin D, a key regulator of renin-angiotensin system, is exploited by SARS-CoV-2 for its entrance into host cells. Furthermore, it modulates numerous immune mechanisms to contain virus including dampening SARS-CoV-2 entrance and replication, reduction of concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokines, increasing production of natural antimicrobial peptide and activating defensive cells such as macrophages with the ability to destroy SARS-CoV-2.||India||Kumar et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||14 studies||Vitamin D could reduce risk of COVID-19 and acute respiratory tract infections through several mechanisms through its interaction of cells. Among them, reducing viral survival and replication, reducing production of cytokines, maintenance of endothelial cell integrity and enhancement of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentrations have been suggested. Inverse correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with incidence and or severity of COVID-19 infection. It satisfies Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system, namely, consistency, strength of association, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), temporality, and coherence despite of lacking experimental verification. Therefore, there is enough strong evidence about usage of vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 by people and physicians regarding their wide therapeutic window and safety.||USA||Mercola et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||A growing body of circumstantial evidence links vitamin D status and COVID-19 outcomes. Role of vitamin D in COVID-19 could be twofold by reducing inflammatory responses and supporting production of antimicrobial peptides in respiratory epithelium which makes development of COVID-19 symptoms less likely. Deregulation of inflammatory responses, especially renin– angiotensin system is the main feature of COVID-19 and its over activation brings poorer prognosis. Vitamin D is able to interact with a protein in ACE-2 pathway which is also exploited by SARS-CoV-2 as an entry receptor. While ACE-2 expression is downregulated by SARS-CoV-2, vitamin D promotes its expression.||Mitchell et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||Vitamin D exert dual role of initial controlling of viral replication and later dampening of hyper-inflammation which is consistent with observation of possible adverse impact of low levels of vitamin D or polymorphisms in Vitamin D receptor) on outcomes of COVID-19 cases.||India||Mohan et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin D (review)||15 studies||It has been hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation could help in maintenance of sufficient vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients as guideline recommended. This allows generation of a local high dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 in respiratory epithelia and immune cells by inflammation-up regulated 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in order to prohibit cytokine release syndrome and subsequent disease progression. Monitoring of serum calcium level is recommended and its mitigation using hydration or adjustment of the dose of applied vitamin D supplement is essential in the case of significant hypercalcemia.||USA||Xu et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin E (review)||Lipid hydroperoxides will be formed due to reaction of oxygen with the cell membrane lipids using lipoxygenase with the help of peroxyl radicals. In order to prevent formation of hydroperoxides, vitamin E reacts with peroxyl radicals. Afterward, oxidized lipids will be detoxified by GPX4, glutathione, and other antioxidant agents to prohibit triggering of ferroptosis. Besides, vitamin E is able to compensate for detoxification induced by GPX4 deficiency. Indeed, induced neurodegeneration in the setting of vitamin E deficiency is said to be related to ferroptosis. Neural damage in COVID-19 cases might be partly inhibited by consumption of vitamin E through an anti-ferroptosis mechanism. Thus, toxic mechanisms behind iron serum levels such as ferroptosis should be inhibited using consumption of vitamin E through prohibition of peroxyl and lipoxygenase radicals. High dosage of Vitamin E supplement (500 mg/kg) could be used as a therapeutic medicine to prevent ferroptosis in COVID- 19 cases and diminish ferroptosis induced multiple organ damages including gut, kidney, heart, lung, liver, and nervous system. This could also lead to viral clearance and ablation of inflammation through modulation of T cells.||Iran||Tavakol et al. 2021 [|
Vitamin E at a high dose as an anti-ferroptosis drug and not just a supplement for COVID-19 treatment.
|Vitamin E (research article)||60 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection and 36 age-matched pregnant women without any defined risk factors.||A correlation analysis on pregnant women showed higher obstetric complication rate in COVID-19 group. Higher Afamin levels and lower vitamin E levels were observed in the COVID-19 group for the all trimesters, albeit this association was statistically noon-significant for Afamin levels which could support the role of enhanced oxidative stress in pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection and its relationship with the development of composite adverse perinatal outcomes. The values in the ROC curves with the best balance of sensitivity/specificity for vitamin E and afamin were 3.150μg/ml and 0.424 mg/l, respectively. A positive moderate statistically significant correlation was observed between regarding CRP and afamin levels.||Turkey||Erol et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin E (research article)||in vitro and in vivo||Cytotoxicty is induced in aerosols generated reactive oxygen species exposed cells which subsequently lead to elicited inflammatory responses and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Parameters of acute toxicity due to aerosol inhalation were evaluated in a murine model. Infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils were accompanied by a significant increase in IL-6, G-CSF and eotaxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There was a significant increase in leukotrienes, eicosanoid inflammatory mediators, in mouse plasma. Increased plasma levels of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and diverse eicosanoids were observed in e-cig users. The most significant toxicity and side effects were observed after exposure to e-cig cartridge aerosols compared to vitamin E acetate and medium-chain triglycerides. Indeed, we identified no impact associated with aerosol exposures from these evaluated cartridges. An induced in vitro cytotoxicity, inflammation and barrier dysfunction were observed following acute exposure to specific e-cig cartridges. Indeed, in vivo mouse exposure was associated with acute inflammation and elevated pro-inflammatory markers in pathogenesis of associated lung injury.||USA||Muthumalage et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin E (research article)||138 COVID-19 patients and 138 population controls.||Plasma levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein (dp-ucMGP) were significantly different between survivors vs. non-survivors. Patients had significantly higher levels of dp-ucMGP compared to controls. Increased dp-ucMGP levels which indicates low vitamin K status reflected higher mortality risk based on Cox regression survival analysis. After adjustment for co-morbidities, the association became attenuated and statistically insignificant. Conclusively, low vitamin K status was found to be associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but not in analyses with additional adjustment for co-morbidities.||Denmark||Linneberg et al. 2021 [|
|Vitamin E (research article)||1270||After Propensity score matching, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on vitamin K antagonists (VKAs); 635 on direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs). There was a similar risks and 30-day event-free survival including all-cause mortality, ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding and ICU admission/MV necessity in VKA-treated patients compared to patients on DOACs. In the VKA cohort, there was 43% higher risk of any venous or arterial thrombotic event was 43% higher. Thus, prior application of DOAC therapy at the time of diagnosis in outpatient COVID-19 cases with cardiometabolic diseases vs. VKA therapy.||TriNetX (a global federated health research network)||Rivera-Caravaca et al. 2021 [|
|Vitamin E (research article)||sixty-two COVID-19|
|Vitamin K deficiency is suggested to be frequently observed in COVID-19 cases with more prevalence in males vs. females. Vitamin K deficiency in male patients is associated with greater circulatory levels of IL-6. Vitamin K deficiency is able to support both cytokine storm Through enhancement of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6 which is involved in build-up of recruitment of inflammatory responses that recruit both humoral and cellular components. Moreover, it also contributes to events involved in vascular calcification associated with thrombosis and disseminate intravascular coagulation (DIC) as features of microvascular injury seen in COVID patients. These data introduce Vitamin K as a probable modifiable risk factor for development of a severe course of COVID-19 infection.||Italy||Anastasi et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin E (research article)||135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were compared with 184 historical controls.||Elevated Dp-ucMGP was observed in COVID-19 cases compared to controls, with higher dp-ucMGP in infected cases with poor outcomes. In 82.1% of cases, prothrombin (PIVKA-II) was normal. There was a correlation between Dp-ucMGP and desmosines and scores of thoracic aorta and coronary artery calcification.||Netherlands||Dofferhoff et al. 2020 [|
Reduced vitamin K status as a potentially modifiable risk factor of severe COVID-19.
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020; (an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America)
|Vitamin E (review)||Covid-19 results in significant extrahepatic vitamin K insufficiency leading to the development of impairment in activation of extrahepatic proteins such as endothelial anticoagulant protein S in the setting of normal hepatic procoagulant activity. This indicates to enhanced thrombogenicity in the setting of severe Covid-19 infection. VKA inhibits vitamin K recycling and exerts a greater impact on procoagulant activity during SARS-CoV- 2 infections rather than activation of extrahepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins. A genetic polymorphism in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 which is known as Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) −1639A, which is associated with low rates of vitamin K recycling is especially prevalent in East Asia. Allele carriage could be considered as being bioequivalent to consumption of low-dose VKA. VKORC1−1639A is speculated to confer protection against development of thrombotic complications related to Covid-19. Variations in its allele frequency could be partly responsible for differences in Covid-19 severity among East and West. Disparity in COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality between East and West that could be partly explained by variations in allelic distribution of a VKORC1 polymorphism involved in determination of vitamin K recycling rate. Since VKORC1−1639A allele has been demonstrated to be associated with reduced risk of thrombotic complications and/or death, it could support the important role of vitamin K metabolism in determination of Covid-19-related disease severity.||Netherlands||Janssen et al. 2020 [|
|Vitamin E (review)||The vitamin K-dependent factors protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6) and their tyrosine kinase receptors TYRO3, MERTK, AXL and the TAM subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are known as key regulators of vascular response to injury and inflammatory processes. The important role of the TAM receptor family is being recognized during SARS-CoV-2 infection and progression of COVID-19 disease. Altered serum levels of sAXL, GAS6, sMERTK, or PROS1 have been previously associated with progression of inflammatory diseases and fibrosis in lung, heart and liver. Changes of specific components in COVID-19 patients seems to be associated with clinical complications and disease severity. Thus, COVID-19 could be possibly benefited from TAM targeting.||Spain||Tutusaus et al. 2020 [|
|Calcium (systematic review)||25 studies||Clinical data derived from 12 articles demonstrated hypocalcemia in 59% of COVID-19 patients. The results of meta-analysis demonstrated significant association between hypocalcemia and disease severity, mortality, admission to intensive care unit and number of hospitalization days. Indeed, a direct association was observed between low serum calcium levels and decreasing lymphocyte counts and increasing D-dimer levels.||Iran||Alemzadeh et al. 2020 [|
The effect of low serum calcium level on the severity and mortality of Covid patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
|Calcium (review)||20 studies||Evidence have indicated reduced mortality of COVID-19 through consumption of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), especially nifedipine and amlodipine. Indeed, hypocalcemia had strong positive association with severity of COVID-19. Effectiveness of CCBs as antiviral therapeutic approach and positive relationship between hypocalcemia and mortality have been shown for various viruses as well. It has been hypothesized that hypocalcemia indicates a host defense. In addition, hypocalcemia might include antiviral properties as the same with CCBs through its interference with metabolism of calcium in virus-infected cells. Calcium ions are central to replication of coronavirus and possible interference of hypocalcemia and CCBs with viral replication through reduction of intracellular calcium level has been suggested.||USA||Crespi et al. 2021 [|
Conflicts over calcium and the treatment of COVID-19.
National library of office. 2021; 9: 149-156
|Calcium (review)||Calcium supplementation during SARS CoV-2 associated hyperactive stage of CaSR might induce injury to cardiorenal system. Besides, CaSR inhibition is also able to regulate enhanced levels of intracellular calcium, proinflammatory mechanisms, oxidative stress and cardio-renal cellular apoptosis with their subsequent adverse induction of high cytokine levels during COVID-19 infection.||India||Singh et al. 2021 [|
Calcium sensing receptor hyperactivation through viral envelop protein E of SARS CoV2: A novel target for cardio-renal damage in COVID-19 infection.
Drug Dev Res. 2021; 82: 784-788
|Zinc (review)||Zinc should be prescribed as a preventative measure against COVID-19 infection and generally for support of immune health. Zinc should be considered as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19 based on its limited drug interactions and known safety. It also should be supplemented in the setting of acquired zinc deficiency during a viral infection and its related host immune response.||USA||Joachimiak et al. 2021 [|
|Zinc (review)||15 studies||Zinc is a well-tolerated element with antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Its anti-viral properties are possibly mediated through inhibition of RNA virus RdRp which protects cells and tissues against oxidative damage and viral infection. Thus, zinc could be supplemented safely in COVID-19 cases.||India||Pal et al. 2021 [|
|Zinc (review)||Zinc could reduce risk of infection and optimize immune functions as an anti-inflammatory agent. Zinc supplementation could be a useful supplementation in order to diminish the global burden of infection in elder patients.||Brazil||Almeida Brasiel et al. 2020 [|
|Zinc (review)||Improvement of zinc status in COVID- 19 patients could conquer the infection and subsequently bolster their recovery. By adoption of this health-restoration strategy, other nutrients are also needed to be applied.||Australia||Butters et al. 2020 [|
|Zinc and vitamins (review)||Deficiency of one or more of vitamins C, D and zinc compromises immune responses, which makes persons prone to viral infections and a worse disease prognosis. Therefore, adequate intake of vitamin C, D and zinc during the COVID-19 pandemic could represent a promising approach based on high demands of these nutrients in cases with contact to the virus and those who are at the onset of inflammatory process.||Brazil||Name et al. 2020 [|
|Zinc (review)||Chloroquine is able to induce zinc uptake into cell cytosol which enables inhibition of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and ultimate halting of coronavirus replication in host cells. Chloroquine is widely prescribed as an anti-malarial agent without any doubt in its safety.||USA||Shittu et al. 2020 [|
|Zinc (review)||Certain indications implicate modulation of zinc status could be beneficial in COVID-19. In vitro experiments indicates antiviral properties of Zn2+ through inhibition of SARS-CoV RNA polymerase. This effect might indicate to the therapeutic efficiency of chloroquine which functions as zinc ionophore. Decreased activity of ACE2 which is known as SARS-C oV-2 receptor by Zn2+ is demonstrated through indirect evidence. Zinc could also improve antiviral immunity through up-regulated production of interferon α and enhancement of its antiviral properties. Zinc exert anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of regulatory T-cell functions and inhibition of NF-κB signaling that might limit cytokine storm in COVID-19. Improved Zinc status is also able to diminish the risk of bacterial co-infection through improvement of mucociliary clearance and respiratory epithelial barrier function and possessing antibacterial effects. Zinc status is tightly associated with risk factors of severe COVID-19 including immune deficiency, ageing, obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes which are recognized risk groups for zinc deficiency. Thus, Zink could have protective effects such as adjuvant and preventive therapeutic measure of COVID-19 through reduction of inflammation, prevention of ventilator-induced lung damage, modulation of antibacterial and antiviral immunity and improvement of mucociliary clearance.||Russia||Skalny et al. 2020 [|
|Zinc (review)||17 studies||Several lines of evidence indicate to the benefits of supplementation with zinc. Zinc supplementation is associated with improved mucociliary clearance, preserved antiviral immunity, strengthened epithelial integrity, decreased viral replication, attenuated risk of hyper-inflammation, possessing anti-oxidative effects, minimized secondary infections and reduced lung damage. Patients with underlying chronic diseases, elder subjects, and most of the remaining COVID-19 risk groups would most likely be benefited. However, more investigation is required to test the impacts of zinc as a therapeutic option for the established disease. Indeed, preventive supplementation of cases from risk groups should be initiated due to the cost effectiveness, having little or no side effects, global availability and simple application of zinc.||Germany||Wessels et al. 2020 [|
|Iron (review)||13 studies||During COVID-19 infection, enhanced plasma iron levels is associated with higher amounts of generated reactive oxygen species which subsequently lead to oxidative stress and lung injury followed by declined lung function and lung fibrosis. Iron overload enhances viral replication and exert a fundamental role in severity of infection. Iron chelating agents such as Deferoxamine and Lactoferrin could diminish iron availability in serum and body tissues which could prevent lung injury and fibrosis related to COVID-19 infection. Indeed, recent nominate compounds with a potential as protease inhibition seems to be novel candidates for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.||Italy||Carota et al. 2021 [|
|Iron (review)||Iron is an important player ensuring adequate immune responses and a number of interesting intersections have been highlighted from surveys on iron metabolism in COVID-19. While the functional implications of the action of iron in facing certain parasites, bacteria and the host have been established, this scenario is less clarified during viral infections. Furthermore, specific patterns related to hepcidin and iron regulation occur during various viral infections. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by significant functional iron deficiency and high hepcidin level, the former is possibly associated with impaired response to lymphocyte function and hypoxia.||Italy||Girelli et al. 2021 [|
|Iron (review)||Iron overload is implicated as a contributor in pathogenesis of COVID-19. Besides, several manifestations of COVID-19, such as hypercoagulation, immune dysfunction, inflammation and hyperferritinemia are reminiscent of iron overload. Although iron is vital for alive cells, free unbound iron which leads to iron dysregulation and overload is significantly reactive with potential toxic properties due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS react with and damage nucleic acids, cellular lipids, and proteins which consequently activate either acute and or chronic inflammatory processes during multiple clinical conditions. Furthermore, iron-catalyzed lipid injury exerts a direct causative impact on the newly identified nonapoptotic cell death pathway recognized as ferroptosis, which is immunogenic unlike apoptosis. It not only results in amplification of cell death but also promotes occurrence of reactions related to inflammation. Generally, iron chelators are safe and are able to protect patients in the clinical conditions induced by iron overload. Iron chelators also exert antiviral activities. Lactoferrin, as a naturally occurring iron chelator, possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties which binds to several receptors in demand of coronaviruses to block their entry into host cells. Thus, iron chelators could be with high therapeutic value during this current COVID-19 pandemic.||Egypt||Habib et al. 2021 [|
|Iron (review)||Endolysosomal function could be considered as a target in COVID-19. Based on recent clinical data, patients on lysosomotropic drugs for the treatment of their underlying conditions would also be benefited from this therapeutic strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and its transition to COVID-19. In these cellular settings, there are some obvious alterations in iron metabolism. Enhanced iron levels and/or dysregulated homeostasis of iron occur in various lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis and declined lung function are observed in experimental and clinical investigations to be associated with accumulation of pulmonary iron level in a model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Indeed, increased iron accumulation is observed in lung sections obtained from cases with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Current antioxidant compounds of interest include enzymes (superoxide dismutases and GPXs), quercetin, minerals, melatonin, GSH, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, curcumin, vitamins B6, D, E, and C and natural polyphenols.||France||Rochette et al. 2021 [|
GDF15: an emerging modulator of immunity and a strategy in COVID-19 in association with iron metabolism.
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2021;
|Iron (review)||Hyper-ferritinemia is observed in COVID-19 patients as a response to inflammation. It could be associated with iron toxicity due to enhanced leakage of ferritin from damaged tissues releasing free iron. The linkage between hyper-ferritinemia and enhanced transferrin saturation reflects iron overload state. Thus, targeting intracellular iron overload seems an appropriate strategy in ongoing controlled clinical trials. We suggest application of approved ferroptosis inhibitors, iron chelators, erythropoietin and hepcidin modulators besides treatment of inflammatory state. This promising therapeutic strategy could be linked with specific targets of intra and extracellular mitochondria dysfunction or production of reactive species interactome and ferroptosis.||France||Edeas et al. 2020 [|
|Iron (review)||Presence of common aspects between iron chelation and COVID-19 is still unknown. It is reasonable to suggest the possible influence of iron chelation on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals and production involved in the late phases of COVID-19 infection with subsequent development to acute lung injury and ARDS. Anti-fibrotic properties of iron chelators might be another mechanism of action which needs to be considered. The abovementioned considerations highlight COVID-19 as part of the spectrum of hyperferritinemic syndrome. Probable acute iron overload due to rapid synthesis of ferritin exceeded rate of iron incorporation and beneficial impacts of iron chelation therapy on inflammation and on fibrogenesis occur in the lungs indicate that iron chelation could improve the survival and long-term outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.||Italy||Perricone et al. 2020 [|
|Iron (review)||Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) possible have: [|
] a direct antiviral property; [
] a possible ability to attenuate progression of COVID-19 to the development of severe forms by inflammatory mechanisms; [
] a potential anti-thrombotic effect. Due to their minimal toxicity and complex action, we suggest treatment with CQ/HCQ CQ beyond 5–10 days in patients with COVID-19 based on the hypothesis that their application could be extended after ending high replication phase of Sars-Cov-2 and considering the possibility of infection reactivation.
|Italy||Roldan et al. 2020 [|
|Selenium (review)||Oxidative stress is a unique feature of COVID-19 disease which is associated with immunopathological disorder seen in cases with severe COVID-19. Selenium exerts a fundamental role in strengthening of immunity, preventing viral infections, reducing oxidative stress and supporting critical illness. Selenium deficiency is associated with hyperinflammation and oxidative stress observed in critical and severe COVID-19 illness.||Australia||Khatiwada et al. 2021 [|
|Selenium (review)||31 studies||Selenium is an essential trace element for proper functioning of immune system. Impaired immune responses and predisposition to autoimmune disease (AID) especially for thyroid gland could be induced by severe Selenium deficits. Active immune system by elevated cytokine levels suppresses biosynthesis of hepatic selenoprotein and secretion of selenoprotein P into the circulation leading to diminished metabolism of Selenium and suppressed Selenium status. An acute or chronic severe Selenium deficiency perturbs immune system irrespective of its cause (e.g., infection, poor nutrition, pregnancy, cancer, trauma, surgery). Clinical settings with low Selenium status are overlapping with known triggers of AID indicating to the presence of a direct causal interrelation. Benefits of supplemental Selenium are recognized for the thyroid but not yet for the other prevalent AID, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis. Avoidance of severe Selenium deficiency might diminish risks of AID that alleviate symptoms of disease, both for prevention and treatment. Therefore, substitution of selenium is recommended strongly for acute or chronic deficiency, while supplementation of healthy persons by sufficiently high baseline levels is not a warranty.||Germany||Schomburg et al. 2021 [|
|Selenium (review)||Disrupted antioxidant defense is shown in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARSCoV infection. Selenium exerts a fundamental role in reduction of produced ROS in response to different viral infections. Selenoprotein enzymes are important for fighting against oxidative stress due to excessive production of ROS. Selenium also plays a role in inhibition of NF-κB activation which alleviates inflammation. Selenoproteins could inhibit responses related to type I interferon during viral infections which modulates oxidative burst in macrophages and proliferation of T cells with subsequent inhibition of viral transcriptional activators. Potential virally encoded selenoproteins have been recognized through computational analysis performed in various viral genomes such as Japanese encephalitis virus, HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus. The relationship between these potential virally encoded selenoproteins with different disease phenotypes highlights their biological role in pathogenesis of COVID-19. It could also help in better understanding impacts of an apparent selenium deficiency in the host cell through over translation of viral selenoproteins on host cell defense mechanisms against COVID-19 infection. Trials on selenium for the treatment of COVID-19 will provide new horizons for the treatment of COVID-19 due to the presence of unequivocal proof regarding the involvement of selenium in antioxidant related mechanisms. Indeed, improvement in lung antioxidant capacity of ARDS patients has been shown using infusion of intravenous sodium selenite.||India||Tomo et al. 2021 [|
|Selenium (review)||36 studies||Environments with selenium deficiency favor replication, virulence and mutation of RNA viruses. Selenium status could influence SARS-CoV-2 like other RNA viruses. Selenium induces activity of antioxidant selenoenzymes that possibly rebalance host responses. Selenium plays a role as a NF-kB inhibitor in progression of COVID-19 and functions as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory micronutrient. Besides, it could reduce impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on vascular endothelial cells and platelet aggregation. Oxidative state is a common feature of COVID-19 especially in obese and elder patients who are at risk for the development of severe outcomes. Selenium has an important roles to play by reduction of oxidative stress.||France||Hiffler et al. 2020 [|
|Selenium (review)||There is a long story behind selenium in reduction of incidence and severity of different viral infections. Significantly higher selenium level was observed in serum samples of survivors vs. non-survivors of COVID-19 infection. Indeed, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the cure rate of COVID-19 in Chinese people and regional selenium status. Furthermore, the cure rate raised to beyond the selenium intake needed for optimization of selenoproteins which suggest that possibly selenoproteins are not the whole story. Significant reduction in expression level of a number of selenoproteins that control ER stress and increase in IL-6 expression was observed in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells in culture suggesting a potential association between the reduced expression of selenoprotein and COVID-19-related inflammation. The synthetic redox-active selenium compound, ebselen, could strongly inhibit main SARS-CoV-2 protease which enables maturation of viruses within host cells. This observation indicates that formed redox-active selenium species at high selenium intake could possibly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 proteases. Through interference with human selenoprotein system, SARS-CoV-2 could evade an adequate host response.||China||Zhang et al. 2020 [|
|Amino acids (research article)||30 control and 112 COVID-19 patients||There was a significant difference regarding 20 amino acids when compared to the control group in COVID-19 patient groups with different levels of severity. Branched-chain amino acids showed alteration in correlation with each other, and l-phenylalanine and l-2-aminobutyric acid were suggested to be potential biomarkers for COVID-19. Thus, l-2-aminobutyric acid could afford prognostic information regarding disease course.||Turkey||Atila et al. 2021 [|
|Amino acids (research article)||46 severe and 19 mild COVID-19 patients and 27 controls||In hypoxic conditions, there was an association between modified metabolic profiles and altered amino acid catabolism. Besides, there was an increase in three α-hydroxyl acids of amino acid origin with disease severity in correlation with clinical markers of lung injury and changed oxygen saturation levels. We speculate maintenance NAD recycling through enzymatic conversion of α-keto-acids to α- hydroxyl-acids in the setting of altered oxygen levels indicating to the potential relevance of supplementation with amino acids during SARS-CoV-2 infection.||Mexico||Páez-Franco et al. 2021 [|
|Amino acids (review)||Overnutrition/excess serum amino acid profile during obesity has been associated with inflammation and reprogramming of translational machinery through hyperactivation of amino acid sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is exploited by SARS-CoV-2 for its replication. Indeed, activation of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) dependent amino acid starvation sensing pathway prevents intestinal inflammation through suppressing production of interleukin-1 beta and reactive oxygen species (ROS). While activation of GCN2 is able to mitigate susceptibility to dengue infection, enhanced GCN2 deficiency is associated with viremia and inflammation-related pathologies. These findings display role of amino acid sensing pathway in controlling viral infections and inflammation. The current fact is aggravated COVID-19 infection through activation of obesity/excess amino acids/mTOR pathway and activation of amino acid starvation sensor GCN2 could possibly have an opposite effect.||India||Philips et al. 2021 [|
|Amino acids (review)||Impaired angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) which is cellular anchor of SARS-CoV-2 results in GI disturbance. During infection it is postulated to be internalized to dwindle expression of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (B◦AT1) in intestinal cells (Nisoli et al., 2020). Hartnup disorder, an inherited defect in B◦AT1 amino acid transporter, which is encoded by mutated SLC6A19 gene shares numerous psychiatric symptoms with COVID-19 (Nisoli et al., 2020). Impaired uptake of amino acid reduces neurotransmitter levels which could invite psychiatric symptoms. Tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) exerts pleiotropic effects during physiological and psychiatric health. It also regulates presentations of depressive disorders (Rao et al., 2008); which postulates a link for psychoneuroimmunomodulation in COVID-19 (Soni et al., 2020b). Precursor amino acid therapy was associated with huge success in management of pain and management of psychosomatic disorders (Rao et al., 2008). Attempts made for management of COVID-19 encompass both physiological and mental well-being (Tandon, 2020). Thus, psychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 infected cases patients are contributing to physiological injuries triggered by SARS-CoV-2-infection. Nutritional deficiency mainly at the level and ratio of amino acids might change the neurotransmitters balance in provoking depression, anxiety, and mood alterations in COVID-19 patients. A supplementation with conditional amino acids could improve mental well-being, immunity and therapeutic outcomes of COVID-19.||India||Soni et al. 2020 [|
|Coenzyme Q10 (review)||Modulated mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism with lower levels of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in viral infections highlights dysfunction in mitochondrial bioenergetics with CoQ10 deficit as the main pathobiochemical impacts of SARS-Cov-2 virus resulting in reduction in its endogenous biosynthesis. The mechanism could pass through virus induced oxidative stress leading to mutation of one or more of the nine COQ genes resulting in the development of primary CoQ10 deficiency.||Slovakia||Gvozdjakova et al. 2020 [|
|omega-3 (review)||Administration of I.V. omega-3 PUFA will reduce inflammatory mediators which is indicative for beneficial clinical effects. Simultaneous monitoring of pro-resolving and pro-inflammatory mediators will facilitate understanding possible failure of resolution of inflammation in COVID-19.||Sweden||Arnardottir et al. 2021 [|
|omega-3 (review)||Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have immunomodulation effects and are also able to improve mood disorders. Strengthening baseline immunity could facilitate prevention of psychiatric sequelae and fatal outcomes in COVID-19 infected cases or prevent relapse of pre-pandemic psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a balanced healthy diet might be what is required for improvement of our immunity and it is needed to evaluate if n-3 PUFAs are possible nutraceutical for maintenance of our mental.||Taiwan||Chang et al. 2020 [|
|omega-3 (review)||Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) has several benefits and taking it as a supplement could prevent viral entry through altered composition of fat component in cellular bilipid membrane. Omega-3 FAs, such as Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and exert their functions by their incorporation in cell membrane and influence of clumping of toll-like receptors with subsequent prevention of signals activating NF-κB in order to ameliorate COVID-19 complications through production of production of fewer pro-inflammatory mediators. EPA and DHA are precursors of resolvins E and D particles reducing proinflammatory mediators which subsequently reduce recruitment of pulmonary neutrophils and increase apoptosis by macrophages. As a result, production of broncho-alveolar IL-6 and lung inflammation are decreased. Omega-3 FA is involved in enhancement of phagocytic capacity of macrophages in the setting of altered composition of bilipid layer of cell membrane. Omega-3 FAs is also involved in modulation of both innate and acquired immunity and mediating inflammatory processes. Understanding association between omega-3 FA-enriched diet and clinical outcomes could be more complex than previously speculated while treating COVID-19 patients.||USA||Hathaway et al. 2020 [|
|omega-3 (review)||Although well documented in vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated benefits of omega-3 fatty acids to decrease severity of COVID-19, the risk of high supplementation doses previous or during infection with SARS-CoV-2 must be investigated. Regarding consequences of oxidative stress, cytokines storm, and antiviral drugs on progression of cardiovascular diseases, more investigations on supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids should be performed on survivors of SARS-CoV-2 infection, since health status of these individuals could be improved using proper and controlled supplementation.||Brazil||Rogeroa et al. 2020 [|
Potential benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to patients with COVID-19.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2020;
|omega-3 (review)||Increased dietary omega-3 LC-PUFAs level or as a pharmaco nutrient in addition to artificial nutrition is speculated to diminish the impact of inflammation induced by viral infection such as Covid-19. The mentioned biochemical mechanisms reinforced by animal, clinical and epidemiological data suggest acceleration of revery, reduction of hospitalization, ICU length of stay and reduction of mortality of novel coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 using nutritional supplementation. Omega-3 long-chain (LC)-PUFAs are able to play a central role to prevent cytokine storm at least through reduction of the intensity of inflammation and mortality risk in patients with Covid-19. For general population and primary prevention, at least nutritional recommendation is 500 mg/day for EPAþ DHA and 2.2 g/day for α-linolenic acid (ALA). For secondary prevention, and for symptomatic cases or those with positive Covid-19 infection, the optimal doses for both omega-3 LC-PUFAs and ALA are yet unknown. It is also crucial to meet nutritional recommendation of 2.2g/day of ALA. Regarding omega-3 LC-PUFAs, enteral nutrition enriched with 3.5 g/day EPA and DHA should be prescribed in Covid-19 cases not in a bolus form. Higher amounts of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, up to 9 g/day in the form of fish oil, are safe for administration. It seems that all fatty acids of the omega-3 family seem to play a role. Omega-3 DPA, EPA and DHA are direct substrates for synthesis of pro-resolution mediator. ALA is the initial precursor of these LC-PUFAs by successive desaturation and elongation. Although the overall ALA to DHA conversion is weak, ALA might exert its own impacts on resolution of inflammation.||France||Weill et al. 2020 [|
|Probiotic (research article)||lycocin F and lactococcine G extracted from Lactococcus lactis and from Lactobacillus plantarum, respectively which have high affinities for binding to viral proteins. Manipulation of their sequences are also associated with elimination of side effects. In some instances, their affinities for attachment to SARSCoV- 2 proteins are increased. These two discovered drugs seem to be optimal for treatment of COVID-19 infection.||Iran||Balmeh et al. 2021 [|
|Probiotic (review)||46 studies||Probiotics are attractive vehicles for nasal or oral mucosal delivery of therapeutic molecules. Mucosal administration of therapeutic molecules could induce an immune response mediated through specific mucosal IgA and serum IgG antibodies accompanied by mucosal cell-mediated immune responses that effectively concur to neutralize and eradicate infections. Application of probiotics as live delivery vectors, promotes prospective investigations to evaluate efficacy of genetically modified probiotics against SARSCoV- 2 infection. New emerging horizons in development of vaccine technology re-emphasizes into the contribution of adjuvants accompanied by optimization of codon usage during designing a synthetic gene, expression level, and inoculation dose in order to elicit potent and specific protective immune responses. Mucosal immunization, mainly through nasal route using a probiotic-based vaccine might strongly prohibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.||Iran||Taghinezhad-S et al. 2021 [|
|Probiotic (research article)||200 frontline medical staff||Our data indicates significantly diminished the incidence of respiratory tract infections by about 64.8%, shortened work absent days by 95.5%, reduced time being under medication, reduced time experiencing symptoms of respiratory tract infection and oral ulcer by 78% using administration of oropharyngeal probiotic while no history of antibiotic and anti-viral medicine consumption in the probiotic group. Medical staff under treatment by Bactoblis demonstrated sustained protection against respiratory tract infections with extremely low incidence rate of being suffered from respiratory tract infections at 10th day of administrated probiotic.||China||Wang et al. 2021 [|
|Probiotic (review)||The nutritional and immunity enhancing probiotics which operate gut homeostasis must be paid more research attention. A healthy lifestyle, regular physical exercise, and probiotics supplementation are prominent players for induction of immunity. The specific probiotics roles for stimulation of IgA antibodies, enhancement of natural killer cells function, and control of mucosal barrier inflammation made a big interest in generation of novel probiotics for strengthening of immunity to fight against COVID-19 viruses.||Saudi Arabia||Al-Ansari et al. 2020 [|
|Probiotic (research article)||Binding energies for Plantaricin W for residual binding protein (RBP), polymerase and ACE2 were -11.1, -14.64, and -12.68, respectively comparatively very high with other compounds. Plantaricin W, D, and JLA-9 were able to block the residues (THR556, ALA558) surrounding the deep grove catalytic site (VAL557) of RdRp making them more therapeutically active for COVID-19. Molecular dynamics studies would strengthen the stability of the complexes of plantaricin w and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp enzyme, RBD of spike protein, and human ACE2 receptor.||Saudi Arabia||Anwar et al. 2020 [|
|Diet (review)||Administration of very low-calorie ketogenic diet could be considered in severely obese cases as an effective adjuvant treatment or preventive measure for both rapid weight loss and also rehabilitation during COVID-19 infection. Administration of high fat ketogenic diet (HFKD) in hospitalization period or delicate cases such as cases after positive ventilation and intensive care unit is a challenging hypothesis. Limiting intake of carbohydrate and promotion of ketone formation could lead to amelioration of respiratory parameters. Moreover, HFKDs have strong anti-inflammatory properties and could be helpful in reduction of viral replication. However, numerous studies are old with small sample size without specific addressing of ketosis which highlights the importance of novel clinical trials.||Italy||Gangitano et al. 2021 [|
|Diet (review)||22 studies||Diet, prebiotics and probiotics are primary modulators to maintain gut biodiversity and to support immune responses. Nutritional strategies with the aim to restore a beneficial gut microbiome might facilitate suppression of viral infection in elders and those with underlying comorbidities. Besides, large-scale international randomized clinical trials are required to identify an association between dietary probiotic remedies, gut microbiome, predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and severity of COVID-19 infection.||Poland||Jabczyk et al. 2021 [|
|Diet (review)||A healthy and well-balanced diet exert beneficial impacts on conditions predisposing patients to COVID-19 and its complications. A diet with high antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential might prophylactically mitigate severity of COVID-19. Thus, more investigations are required to evaluate specific components of diet to prevent COVID-19 and also improve infection parameters during illness. In the case of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cases in intensive care units and in critical condition, assessment of their nutritional status and implementation of rapid and proper nutritional care is recommended. Nutritional support requires adequate intake of all essential nutrients particularly n-3 fatty acids, proteins, microelements (zinc and selenium) and vitamins especially C and D and caloric value based on patient's requirements.||Poland||Skrajnowska et al. 2021 [|
|Diet (review)||Different players are involved in extension and severity of COVID-19 infection including early and fast education, public preparedness for pandemics, trained immunity of population, public hygiene and rapid adaptation and organization of the hospitals. Diet is only one of the possible causes of the COVID-19 Which still requires further assessment.||Germany||Bousqu et al. 2020 [|
|Diet (review)||23 studies||A diet with positive impacts on immune function should have adequate protein levels especially arginine, glutamine, and branched-chain amino acids; high fiber content such as whole grains, high amounts of micronutrients including vitamin A, C, D, B and E, iron, selenium, zinc and phytochemicals, high levels of omega-3 vs. lower saturated, trans fat, and omega-6 fatty acids and low amounts of refined sugars. However, as shown well for dietary fiber, an excessive anti-inflammatory response may also reduce the immune response and increase susceptibility to infection. There are controversial reports about vitamin A, in which supplementation with carotenoid might be merely detrimental for asbestos-exposed workers and smokers. Supplementation with selenium should also be considered carefully due to its narrow therapeutic window and its possible side-effects particularly in diabetic cases. While anti-inflammatory constituents of diet could be beneficial during hyper-inflammation phase such as cytokine storm of COVID-19, too strong suppression of immune system and inflammation using high doses of antioxidants and or isolated anti-inflammatory compounds during healthier conditions seems dangerous. Strengthening of immune system during COVID-19 crisis is the output of reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. This topic is highly complex and indicates to seeking for simultaneous determination of individual marker and a nutrient signature in different ways such as using nutrigenomics tools (i.e., metabolomics fingerprinting). This approach might clarify unnoticed associations between nutrients, their metabolites inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Besides, confounding factors such as environmental pollutants and medication should also be taken into account. It is also of great importance of control low-grade chronic inflammation associated with chronic diseases such as obesity, auto-immune, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) possibly through management of nutritional deficiencies and promotion of appropriate nutritional status, which could improve immune response during infection phases.||Luxembourg||Iddir et al. 2020 [|
|Diet (review)||Adequate management of metabolic disorders is essential to reduce risk of severe COVID-19. We should seek for avoidance of deleterious consequences of and positive energy balance physical inactivity through maintenance of exercise levels and physical activity in a safe home environment and applying a healthy diet. It is also beneficial for people without metabolic disorders to prevent deleterious impacts of positive energy balance and physical inactivity, which could lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and its related comorbidities. Avoidance of overeating through applying a healthy balanced diet based on carbohydrates with a low glycemic index such as legumes, healthy fats, vegetables or fruits, protein enriched foods with lower fat percentage is of great value. Besides, restricted calorie intake in the setting of diminished activity or physical inactivity is beneficial. These nutritional recommendations should be accompanied by appropriate daily physical activity program advised by sports science specialists to prohibit metabolic-related health issues. The items need to be considered in this program include coordination, mobility, resistance, and balance and aerobic. The training frequency is recommended to be performed 5–7 days per week with at least 2–3 days with resistance training.||Spain||Martinez-Ferranet al. 2020 [|
|Diet (review)||57 studies||The signs and symptoms of respiratory infections due to COVID-19 could be categorized in the field of Zato al-rieh that can mainly be matched with pneumonia. Some medicinal materia medica and nutrients have been introduced based on the described criteria for the treatment of acute respiratory infections including Rosa Damas Cena, Honey, Cydonia oblonga, Raisin, Citrus sinensis, Malus domestica, D.Carota, Crocus sativus, Citrus medica, Camellia Sinensis, Punica granatum, Anethum graveolens dhi, Coriandrum sativum, Urtica dioica, Petroselinum Crispum, Sesamum indicum, Allium sativum||Iran||Moslemifard et al. 2020 [|
|Diet (review)||Multiple mechanisms exist which highlight the impacts of ketone bodies during significant viral infections such as COVID-19. Administration of exogenous ketones into critical patients to target complications respiratory viruses could be considered as a possible therapy. In order to prevent infection by Sars-Cov 2 infection and its adverse outcomes in obese cases, especially in this current prolonged pandemic emergency, ketogenic diet (KD)-induced increased endogenous ketone bodies might represent a valuable strategy. Furthermore, prevention and or modification of risk status associated with serious COVID-19 including hyperglycemia, obesity, high glycemic variability, hypertension and insulin resistance is mandatory considering novel infection routs in the absence of vaccination and functional pharmacological therapies. This could be achieved using a nutritional strategy aimed to diminish systemic and hepatic insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, improve cardiovascular health, nutritional status, glucose homeostasis, immune response and blood pressure control and induce fat mass loss. Adoption of a personalized and well-structured KD regimen could help a progressive rehabilitation and nutritional education in obese cases which provides an effective strategy to modify lifestyle behavior, support a long-term management of body weight and reduce risk factors for the development of potentially severe complications associated with Sars-Cov2 infection. Well- designed multicentric investigations on the incidence of severe COVID-19 among obese cases who followed or not a planned protocol of KD might help in confirmation of such hypothesis.||Italy||Paoli et al. 2020 [|
|Diet (review)||Large body of evidence support the role of commensal microbiota in human health. Diet plays a crucial role in modulation of gut microbiota resulting in the development of symbiosis or dysbiosis. People should be informed about the benefits of daily consumption of a balanced diet that could be prescribed or improved by food industries or nutritional biologists. A balanced diet like those prepared by dieticians in hostels and hospitals of educational institutions could also be defined for general public, migrants and economically weaker subpopulation of society in order to prevent malnutrition. Besides, intermittent fasting or a fasting-mimicking diet could also be an important advisory, for restoration of beneficial gut microbiota and promotion of overall health.||India||Rishi et al. 2020 [|
|Nutration (review)||Nutrition is an important determining factor for immune response. Good nutrition is essential for supporting immune responses. Immunity could be impaired in elders especially obese, malnourished and frail ones and those who use low amounts of micronutrients. These immune impairments due to nutritional inadequacy leads to susceptibility to infection which allows infections to get more severe and or even fatal. Nutritional inadequacy facilitates dysregulated oxidative stress and inflammation contributing to the development of frailty and poor outcome following infection. Adverse impacts of poor nutrition on immune system and its inflammatory component could explain partly higher risk of poor outcomes following infection with SARS-CoV-2 as observed in elders and those who love with obesity. The role of good nutrition in promotion of diverse gut microbiota which supports immune system should not be neglected and the impacts of aging and obesity on gut microbiota should also be considered. Good nutrition ensures good responses to vaccination, too. Therefore, attention should be paid on addressing current nutritional inadequacies (obesity, general undernutrition frailty, micronutrient insufficiency or deficiency) which are widespread in general population for better supporting of immune responses.||UK||Calder et al. 2021 [|
|Nutration (review)||The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in unhealthy dietary alterations and increased body weight of the population which implies to physical inactivity and obesity as risk factors for COVID-19. Indeed, hospitalized COVID-19 patients manifested malnutrition and deficiencies in selenium, omega-3, iron, medium and long-chain fatty acids and vitamin C, B12 which highlights the potential health impacts of vitamin D and C interventions.||Spain||Clemente-Suárez et al. 2021 [|
|Nutration (review)||The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in alterations in food supply. In many countries, special programs are currently implemented to increase food safety and availability. This altered food availability due to the pandemic is a worldwide phenomenon and its severity is dependent to economic status and affluence of that country. It induces serious implications especially in third world countries due to delayed food distribution, impaired food access, income losses to purchase food. This has acute serious health implications and considering deleterious impacts of past pandemics on human health and growth, prediction of current COVID-19 pandemic is reasonable which will induce global nutritional deficiencies with long-lasting negative impacts on human health. There is no evidence regarding transmission of COVID-19 virus through foods or food packages. The importance of appropriate precautionary equipment in the food industry and application of appropriate personal protective measures, disinfectants and hand hygiene are not negligible. Personal nutritional status could modulate positively or negatively inflammatory processes and infectious disease through alteration of immune system. Malnutrition in elderly and disadvantaged populations leaves these populations predisposed to COVID-19 infections with severe clinical symptoms and poorer outcomes. Although severity of clinical symptoms and infectivity rates of a coronavirus infection could be modulated, strong viral transmission could likely be fully prevented through following a healthy diet or supplementation of diet with nutraceuticals. The impact of zinc, and vitamin D status in COVID-19 patients on viral transmission and its related clinical symptoms is still unclear and needs further research. COVID-19 has a significant impact on some populations through changed eating behaviors. The impact of lockdowns and social isolation on eating habits during the COVID-19 pandemic era should not be underestimated since it has acute effects with possible long-term deleterious impacts on population health. Poor nutritional choices over extended periods of time could have enhanced plasma risk factors for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.||Canada||Rodriguez-Leyva et al. 2021 [|
|Nutrition (review)||Nutritional risk is a highly prevalent event in hospitalized COVID-19 cases with a multi-factorial etiology which is likely due to affliction of older patient population and higher prevalence of comorbidities and altered energy intake due to enhanced requirement of energy and protein due to hypermetabolism, mechanical ventilation, fever, muscle mass loss, weight and diminished nutrient intake related to reduced appetite, mechanical ventilation, dyspnea and gastrointestinal intolerance. Thus, screening or assessing nutritional risk in hospitalized COVID-19 cases through validated screening/assessment tools is recommended by most expert guidance. Since the preferred route of feeding is oral intake, parenteral Nutrition (PN) or enteral Nutrition (EN) should be prescribed soon after ICU admission within 12–48 h, based on the source of expert guidance in the case of contraindications. Furthermore, hospitalized patients might not be able to receive timely nutritional interventions due to uncontrolled hypoxemia, uncontrolled shock needing vasopressor support, uncontrolled hypoxemia, acidosis or hypercapnia, feeding contraindications such as significant gastrointestinal symptoms and difficulty in assessment of patient's nutritional risks which all could lead to the development of poor outcomes. In order to prevent potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 cluster care is recommended and screening of underlying malnutrition by other family, healthcare professionals and/or caregivers is essential. In the case of experiencing contraindications to nutrition such as enhanced vasopressor support or gastrointestinal intolerance, prioritizing patient stabilization is important while considering PN or enteral trophic feeding. After patient stabilization, trophic EN could be initiated by slow progression to the goal nutritional requirements. A standard, protein enriched, polymeric isosmotic EN formula is advised by ASPEN/SCCM; although a higher protein formula may be more appropriate to meet protein requirements in this population. In critically ill hospitalized COVID-19 cases, formulas enriched with DHA and EPA may beneficial through exertion of immunomodulatory effects. Despite lack of clinical evidence providing specific recommendations for nutritional interventions in COVID-19 cases, experience derived from guidelines and clinicians associated with similar disease states could be beneficial until availability of more clinical data. By emerging more data derived from this population, specific guidelines and recommendations can be updated. Recent publications demonstrate higher nutritional risk in critically and severely COVID-19 patients who are hospitalized or admitted to ICU. Poorer clinical outcomes are seen in cases with increased nutritional risk in these populations. Therefore, rapid assessment, recognition and treatment of poor nutritional status is fundamental to improve clinical outcomes in critically and severely ill COVID-19 patients.||USA||Thomas et al. 2021 [|
Nutrition risk prevalence and nutrition care recommendations for hospitalized and critically-ill patients with COVID-19.
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2021;
|Nutrition (review)||60 studies||No miracle food, cure or supplement to treat or prevent COVID-19 is yet available. During the pandemic, application of healthy eating habits is the most appropriate nutritional recommendation.||Malaysia||Abdul Rahim et al. 2020 [|
|Nutrition (review)||39 studies||The impacts of selenium, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamins D, C, E on the immune system and their possible benefits for suffered COVID-19 cases are presented, especially in vulnerable elder population with a disproportionate burden of related morbidity and mortality. All of the above-mentioned nutrients have a feasible role to support COVID-19 patients. Consumption of higher dosage of zinc and vitamins C and D could exert positive effects during COVID-19 infection. Given the negligible risk of supervised nutritional supplementation which weights against its possible benefits, ensuring adequate intake of these minerals and key vitamins in both at risk of, and or suffered from COVID-19 patients.||UAE||Shakoor et al. 2020 [|
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- The importance of vitamin d metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19.Journal of Translational Medicine. 2020; 18: 1-12