Background and aims
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- Jotterand Chaparro C.
- Latten L.
- Marino L.V.
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- Mehta N.M.
- Skillman H.E.
- Irving S.Y.
- Coss-Bu J.A.
- Vermilyea S.
- Farrington E.A.
- et al.
Identification of research questions
- •What definitions are used in relation to feed modification?
- •What methods of feed modification are described?
- •In what settings and populations has feed modification been studied?
- •What are the key clinical and logistic issues when utilising feed modification?
- •What outcome measures have been used in studies of feed modification?
- •What are the reported benefits of specific methods of feed modification?
- •What are the reported risks associated with specific methods of feed modification?
- •What is the evidence for feed modification for increased energy and protein density in critically ill infants and young children?
|Infants and young children||All children aged up to 5 years|
|Feeds||Any liquid nutrition provided orally or via gastrointestinal tube (including breast milk and any other feed or formula)|
|Standard feeds||Expressed breast milk (EBM), standard powdered and liquid ready-to-use infant formulas (approx. 280 kJ/100 ml), standard powdered and liquid ready-to-use paediatric formulas (approx. 420 kJ/100 ml), ‘growing up’ or ‘toddler’ formulas|
|Modified feeds||Feeds modified for purpose of increased energy and protein density, including EBM with additives, standard infant formula prepared at higher concentration, standard formula with macronutrient module additives, and higher energy and protein density ready-to-feed products|
|Critical illness||Studies with participants recruited in a critical care setting or those that receive an intervention that would generally be delivered in an intensive care unit will be defined as those with critical illness|
- •Utilisation of a non-standard feed option for the purpose of increased energy and/or protein density (with standard feed options defined as breast milk, infant formula providing approx. 280 kJ/100 ml and paediatric feeds providing approx. 420 kJ/100 ml)
- •Infants and young children up to the age of 5 years
- •Literature published from the year 2010 to present
- •Primary research studies of any design
- •Grey literature including, but not limited to, theses and conference abstracts
- •All geographic locations
- •English language only
Source of evidence selection
Data charting process
Analysis of the evidence
Conflict of interest
Appendix I Search strategy
|1||Energy Intake/or ∗Enteral Nutrition/or ∗Nutrition Therapy/or ∗Nutritional Support/(34887)|
|2||Infant, Premature, Diseases/mi [Microbiology] (850)|
|3||(nutrition∗ adj 3 (therapy or program∗ or enteral)). tw. (23711)|
|4||(nutrient adj 2 (deficit∗ or accretion)). tw. (190)|
|5||((energy or protein) adj 2 (intake or needs)). tw. (38381)|
|6||(target∗ adj 2 (intake∗ or nutrition∗ or nutrient or fortification)). tw. (1957)|
|7||(fluid adj 2 restrict∗). tw. (2409)|
|8||1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 (87420)|
|9||Milk, Human/or Infant Formula/or Food, Fortified/(35156)|
|10||Nutrients/ad [Administration & Dosage] (331)|
|11||((feed∗ or formula∗ or milk or ebm or breast?milk) adj 2 (composition or content or concentrated or energy dense or high energy or enriched or fortification or fortified or unfortified or supplemented or supplementation or standard or non?standard or ready?to?feed or ready?to?use or speciali?ed)). tw. (20424)|
|12||(modifi∗ adj (feed or formula∗ or ebm or milk or breastmilk)). tw. (535)|
|13||(feed∗ adj 2 (choice or selection)). tw. (1083)|
|14||((energy or protein) adj 2 (supplement∗ or enriched or enteral)). tw. (8182)|
|15||(liquid energy or fortification strategy or nutritional content). tw. (1044)|
|16||((energy or nutrient) adj dense). tw. (3075)|
|17||9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15 or 16 (65671)|
|18||Treatment outcome/or Weight Gain/or Length of stay/or Food Safety/or Osmolar Concentration/orCost-Benefit Analysis/(1355362)|
|19||(weight adj 2 (increase∗ or improve∗ or gain)). tw. (98635)|
|20||((better or improved or patient or treatment or patient) adj 3 outcome∗). tw. (325826)|
|21||(growth or length of stay or LOS). tw. (1733684)|
|22||((reduce∗ or decrease∗ or increase∗ or impact∗) adj 2 (stay or ventilat∗)). tw. (15570)|
|23||(cost adj 2 (product or comparison or analysis)). tw. (30234)|
|24||(safe∗ or contaminat∗ or sterile or osmolality or osmolar). tw. (1316121)|
|25||18 or 19 or 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or 24 (4323497)|
|26||8 and 17 and 25 (2018)|
|27||limit 26 to (english and last 10 years) (985)|
Appendix II. Screening process in EndNote and Covidence
Appendix III. Proposed data charting tool
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