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Colostrum ingredients, its nutritional and health benefits - an overview

Open AccessPublished:July 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutos.2022.07.001

      Highlights

      • Mammalian colostrum use as a dietary supplement, functional food, nutraceutical, and hyper-immune purposes.
      • Colostrum used as a dietary supplement, functional food, hyper-immune purposes, treat various diseases, and now in CoVID-19.
      • Recently contributed as a non-drug alternative to the clinical management of CoVID-19.

      Summary

      This review focused on compiling, summarizing, updating the information available on the colostrum and its health benefits. Colostrum is the first milk secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals immediately after birth during the first few days, and its composition differs from the mature milk. It ensures immune support for newborns in the early stages of life. It is a divine immune gift from the Creator. Mammalian colostrum contains unique components rich in nutritional macronutrients (proteins, fat, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants) and many bioactive substances like antimicrobial factors (Igs, LF, LP, LZ, cytokines) and growth factors (EGF, TGFα and β, IGF-1 and 2, FGF, PDGF, GH), which are necessary to stimulate the immune systems that newborns need for health and survival life. Physicochemical composition changes dramatically in the first few days that distinguish it from mature milk. This reverses an essential difference in their biological function as fractional sources or for health-promotion. So it is considered one of the best natural food supplements consumed within various life stages. Colostrum is used to treat cancer, AIDS, polio, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Hyper-immune colostrum or milk collected from cows immunized by SARS-CoV-2, it can grant protection short-term from infection in humans and can be used as an alternative way to produce specific antibodies against CoVID-19 until effective excess vaccines against new mutations can be available. Likewise, colostrum and its components contribute as a non-drug alternative to the clinical management of CoVID-19. Also, lactoferrin and its supplements are effective in preventing and treating people with coronavirus infection. Therefore, due to these previous multiple functions, colostrum is considered as a natural food, called miracle immune milk, and used as a medicine.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      BC (Bovine colostrum), CoVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019), EGF (Epidermal growth factor), FGF (Frioblast growth factor), GH (Growth hormone), HBC (Hyper-immune bovine colostrum), IGF-1&2 (Insulin-like growth factors), Igs (Immunoglobulins), Ig (M,A,G,E,D) (Immunoglobulin fractions), IgG1 & 2 (IgG subclass), IM (Immune milk), LF (Lactoferrin), LP (Lactoperoxidase), LZ (Lysozyme), PDGF (Platelet derivative growth factor), PRP (Proline-rich polypeptides), SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), TGFα & β (Transforming growth factor)

      1. Introduction

      In the old decades between 275 and 300 BC in the “Sirach Book”, he said that the “first milk” known as colostrum is produced from a female animal immediately after delivery, and various cultures have used it for both nutritional and therapeutic purposes, where it was categorized as one of the life necessities such as water, salt, wheat, honey, iron and fire [
      • Charles R.H.
      The apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of the old testament.
      ]. In 1920, Italian pediatrician Luigi Spolverini encouraged using cow colostrum as an infant's food to protect them from shared diseases between humans and cows, due to its antibody levels that are significantly higher immediately postpartum compared to normal milk. Before developing sulfa drugs and antibiotics, doctors in the world advised using mainly colostrum due to its antibiotic properties, where Dr. Albert Sabin, a virology pioneer, has developed the first polio vaccine by using isolated antibodies from bovine colostrum (BC) [].
      Egyptian's ancients offered an image of the hieroglyph goddess suckling a pharaoh, as the colostrum symbolizes the king's immortality elixir. In India, cows are considered a sacred animal and use colostrum to treat diseases of the skin and eyes. In Sweden, Netherlands, and England, colostrum is a popular and stimulator treatment called “bee sting”. However, men in Kenya drink BC to enhance its strength and vitality [
      • Reninger E.
      History of colostrum as a supplement, colostrum use in Egypt, India, Scandinavia and Kenya.
      ].
      Late in pregnancy, the mammal mothers' body prepares to secrete milk for their newborns, where the secretion of milk within the first few days is known as the colostrum and is commonly a yellow or creamy. In most mammals (like humans, rabbits) several bioactive components are essential for growth and survival such as antibodies or immunoglobulins (Igs) and growth-promoting factors that cross the placental septum and allow creating systemic immunity from mother to fetus in utero. In contrast, completely (in bovine) these bioactive components do uncross the placental septum, so when calves are born being completely unprotected from infection. Hence, it should be suckled directly after birth during the first hours (due to this time is the greatest sensitive) to stimulate their immune system maturation, where the Igs are absorbed among 16–27 h, preferably within 2–4 h of life. In newborn ruminants, the colostrum passes directly into the stomach and small intestine [
      • Butler J.E.
      • Kehrli Jr., M.E.
      Immunoglobulins and immunocytes in the mammary gland and its secretions.
      ]. Similarly, the time of calves feeding immediately after birth (0.5–1 h) is essential, where the absorption ability of Igs is reduced by 1/3 after 6 h, 2/3 after 12 h and an intestinal septum appears after 24 h [
      • Staley T.E.
      • Bush L.J.
      Receptor mechanisms of the neonatal intestine and their relationship to immunoglobulin absorption and disease.
      ]. Moreover, calves can absorb Igs of colostrum ideally in 30 min, while 18 h is necessary, when at 6 h an old can absorb 66%, but at the age of 36 h it can absorb only 7%. It must be ingested colostrum (10% of body weight) within 24 h postpartum, but ideally must receive half of this within 6 h of birth [
      • Banerjee G.C.
      A text Book of animal husbandry 8th.
      ]. In a recent study, buffalo calves are born with little serum IgG, being 4.23±0.33 while after receiving colostrum at 24 h, increased to 34.5±1.48 mg/ml, thus passive immunity transfer was successful. Hence, colostrum IgG values at 0 h were related to serum IgG values at 24 h [
      • Souza D.C.
      • Silva D.G.
      • Fonseca L.C.C.
      • Fiori L.C.
      • Monteiro B.M.
      • Bernardes O.
      • et al.
      Passive immunity transfer in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis).
      ]. Moreover, the babies who are breastfed have a lower digestive tract infection rate than they are fed formula or cow milk. However, with limited colostrum, breast feeding not only weakens the immune system but also exposes them to microbial infection [
      • Bagwe S.
      • Yadav P.
      • Kaur G.
      • Tuli H.S.
      • Buttar H.S.
      Therapeutic applications of human and bovine colostrum in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and distinctive cancer types: the current evidence.
      ]. Additionally, Igs are absorbed by the intestinal epithelium without degradation [
      • Sjaastad O.V.
      • Hove K.
      • Sand O.
      Physiology of domestic animals.
      ]. Colostrum Igs represents about half of the protein, which absorbed intact in a short time after parturition (24–36 h). Newborns can't fully digest proteins due to the stomach not producing enough hydrochloric acid needed to inactivate pepsinogen. Additionally, mammalian colostrum contains high levels of proteins, Igs, antimicrobial activity, growth factors, amino acids (alanine, arginine, aspartic, cysteine, glutamic, glycine, proline, serine and tyrosine), vitamin [A (retinol), B6, B12, C (ascorbic acid) and E (tocopherol)], fatty acids (essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids), minerals (calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium and chromium), cytokines, carbohydrates and lipids. In this context, the colostrum is a valuable product due to its unique components (rich in many bioactive agents), increases both the immune system & lean muscle mass, improves athletic performance & recovery time, supports healthy digestion and reduces allergy symptoms. Most BC is converted into powder supplements for humans and animals. Likewise, colostrum has a trypsin inhibitor that prevents its intraluminal activation [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Scurtu M.
      • Filimon N.
      • Mederle N.
      • Tulcan C.
      • Milovanov C.
      • et al.
      Colostrum a natural valuable product for newborn animal and industry.
      ].
      Human and animal Igs fractions are IgG, M, A, E, D, and found in many secretions (blood, colostrum, milk, tears, and mucus) [
      • Puppel K.
      • Gołebiewski M.
      • Grodkowski G.
      • Slosarz J.
      • Kunowska-Slosarz M.
      • Solarczyk P.
      • et al.
      Composition and factors affecting quality of bovine colostrum: A review.
      ]. Additionally, they contain three main classes in milk being IgG, IgM, and IgA, which represent about 1% of the total milk protein or about 6% of total whey protein [
      • Farrell H.M.
      • Jimenez-Flores R.
      • Bleck G.T.
      • Brown E.M.
      • Butler J.E.
      • Creamer L.K.
      • et al.
      Nomenclature of the proteins of cow’s milk - sixth revision.
      ]. While colostrum has high levels of them and makes up 70–80% of the total protein [
      • Larson B.L.
      Immunoglobulins of the Mammary Secretions.
      ,
      • Smolenski G.
      • Haines S.
      • Kwan F.Y.S.
      • Bond J.
      • Farr V.
      • Davis S.R.
      • et al.
      Characterisation of host defense proteins in milk using a proteomic approach.
      ]. Colostrum is distinct than mature or normal milk because of its high Igs that are highly specialized protein molecules produced by the body's immune system, in response to host exposure to a foreign body (antigen) like infectious microorganism and has special efficacy against these pathogens by destroying it. They represented in cattle three chief types IgG, M, A, and subclass range. Each type differs from the other in structure and function, where IgG class is the most dominant, playing a role in detecting and destroying pathogens in the bloodstream, while IgM detects only bacteria that enter the blood and destroy it. But, IgA works by binding to the membranes that line different organs (like the gut) and prevent infectious pathogens from sticking together and causing disease. Cattle colostrum mainly contains IgG (about 85%, mostly IgG1), while human colostrum is mostly IgA that designed for local immunity and helps the newborn's immune system to deal with local infections in the intestine instead of creating systemic immunity. IgG transmit immunity against specific pathogens from one individual to another, so BC is much better and has great benefits for human childhood and the mother cow produces a large amount that far exceeds the calf's needs. If the calves fail to obtain enough amount of high-quality whole colostrum, it will be more susceptible to pathogens and will not develop to a healthy body [
      • Farrell H.M.
      • Jimenez-Flores R.
      • Bleck G.T.
      • Brown E.M.
      • Butler J.E.
      • Creamer L.K.
      • et al.
      Nomenclature of the proteins of cow’s milk - sixth revision.
      ,
      • McGuire T.C.
      • Pfeiffer N.E.
      • Weikel J.M.
      • Bartsch R.C.
      Failure of colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves dying from infectious disease.
      ,
      • Nocek J.E.
      • Braund D.G.
      • Warner R.G.
      Influence of neonatal colostrum administration, immunoglobulin, and continued feeding of colostrum on calf gain, health and serum protein.
      ,
      • Buhler C.
      • Hammon H.
      • Rossi G.L.
      • Blum J.W.
      Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.
      ,
      • Korhonen H.
      • Marnila P.
      • Gill H.S.
      Bovine milk antibodies for health.
      ,
      • Quigley J.D.
      • Strohbehn R.E.
      • Kost C.J.
      • O’Brien M.M.
      Formulation of colostrum supplements, colostrum replacers and acquisition of passive immunity in neonatal calves.
      ,
      • Blum J.W.
      • Baumrucker C.R.
      Colostral and milk insulin-like growth factors and related substances: Mammary gland and neonatal (intestinal and systemic) targets.
      ,
      • Hammon H.M.
      • Blum J.W.
      Feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer modifies receptors of intestinal insulin-like growth factors and insulin in calves.
      ,

      https://www.vibrantlifeinitiative.org/articles/ColostrumPDR1.pdf; Chapter 1: What’s in Colostrum? Peptide Immunotherapy: Colostrum - A Physicians Reference Guide, Sovereign Health Initiative.

      ,
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Hassan L.K.
      • Farahat E.S.A.
      Impact of heat treatments and some technological processing on immunoglobulins of Egyptian buffalo’s milk.
      ]. In a more recent study, BC has a high value of nutritional and biologically active compounds after birth. BC supplementation products are used for preventing and treating neurological disorders (dementia, cognition, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease), cardiovascular diseases, immune-related, allergy problems, skin disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, gut microbial, type-2 diabetes, and improved athletic performance [
      • Mehra R.
      • Singh R.
      • Nayan V.
      • Buttar H.
      • Kumar N.
      • Kumar S.
      • et al.
      Nutritional attributes of bovine colostrum components in human health and disease: A comprehensive review.
      ].
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) is a highly contagious caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and only a few months later, it spread very quickly. Since then become a global epidemic has caused major economic losses and extraordinary public health threats due to high rates of morbidity, mortality thousands, and the need to implement strict isolation measures [
      • Ge H.
      • Wang X.
      • Yuan X.
      • Xiao G.
      • Wang C.
      • Deng T.
      • et al.
      The epidemiology and clinical information about COVID-19.
      ,
      • Zhang G.
      • Li B.
      • Yoo D.
      • Qin T.
      • Zhang X.
      • Jia Y.
      • et al.
      Animal coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
      ]. Now, according to Johns Hopkins University in USA, it showed that injuries around the world are estimated at 250 million cases so far, and more than five million people have died since the start of the pandemic. WHO estimates that the exact number of global deaths may be two to three times higher than official records. At present, the epidemiological situation of the Corona virus around the world is not promising, because it is constantly mutating, as it has mutated and changed its genetic makeup to new viral variants, the recent being the mutated strains (Delta and Omicron), which has the most widespread and common, it was appeared in many countries of the world during the past few months, it affects children, young people, pregnant women, more impact on the elderly, and symptoms vary from person to other. Therefore, vaccination against this virus must be obtained (although it does not completely prevent infection), it helps reduce the severity of symptoms resulting from infection, which range from moderate to mild, this helps not to put pressure on hospitals due to the lack of cases entering intensive care. It is also necessary to continue to follow precautionary measures to limit the spread of the virus, even after receiving the vaccine.
      Therefore, the world urgently should license increasingly developed corona vaccines to increase supplies for keep health. It was found that some corona vaccines do not have the full ability to address new and many mutations that increase the rate of infection globally. Recent evidence suggests that hyper-immune plasma rich in IgG gets from recovering corona patients could protect against it and boost the immune response of newly infected patients across acquired passive immunity, where isolated IgG has been used in immunotherapy plus valuable antiviral drug might be an alternate treatment until extra vaccines effective against new mutations can be produced and developed. Additionally, raw hyper-immune colostrum or milk (specific antibodies) collected from cows immunized by SARS-CoV-2, it grants protection short-term from human infection [
      • Jawhara S.
      Can drinking microfiltered raw immune milk from cows immunized against SARS-CoV-2 provide short-term protection against COVID-19?.
      ,
      • Jawhara S.
      Could intravenous immunoglobulin collected from recovered coronavirus patients protect against COVID-19 and strengthen the immune system of new patients?.
      ]. A strong immune response plays a major role in treating unknown pathogens such as CoVID-19, where functional foods are the best approach for treat immune system problems related to nutrition. It becomes more important than ever in diet benefits, either preventive (diabetes, cancer, reduced heart risk, renal, osteoporosis) or curative (reduce cholesterol, weight manages) and against nutritional deficiency diseases [
      Global-functional-foods-drinks-market trajectory-analytics.
      ].

      2. Colostrum concepts

      The World Health Organization has recommended that colostrum is an ideal food for all neonates, it is a yellowish sticky constituent secreted by the mother at birth that continues for the first 2–4 days, and rich in lacto-protein []. There are numerous special names for this yellowish broth rich in protein (colostrum), which can be defined as the first natural “pre-milk” substance produced by the mammary gland of all female mammals (including human) after birth that is completely different from other foods (even milk). It contains protective proteins, immune and growth factors plus all nutrients that newborns require to grow and survive. These components have beneficial effects on increasing their immunity. Immune factors provide the offspring with needed immunity to ward off deadly infections until owning a speedy immune system, while growth factors help the intestine grow fully that was incomplete during delivery time [

      https://www.vibrantlifeinitiative.org/articles/ColostrumPDR1.pdf; Chapter 1: What’s in Colostrum? Peptide Immunotherapy: Colostrum - A Physicians Reference Guide, Sovereign Health Initiative.

      ]. The colostrum was also named early milk [
      • Gregory S.
      • Kelly N.D.
      Bovine colostrums: A review of clinical uses.
      ], beestings [
      • Gottstein M.
      Colostrum is vital ingredient to keep newborn lambs alive.
      ], the first milk or pre-milk [
      • Ballard O.
      • Morrow A.L.
      Human milk composition: Nutrients and bioactive factors.
      ], an elixir of life [
      • Reninger E.
      History of colostrum as a supplement, colostrum use in Egypt, India, Scandinavia and Kenya.
      ,
      • Bagwe S.
      • Yadav P.
      • Kaur G.
      • Tuli H.S.
      • Buttar H.S.
      Therapeutic applications of human and bovine colostrum in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and distinctive cancer types: the current evidence.
      ]. Furthermore, all female mammals excrete the “first milk” or the “life's first food” called colostrum after parturition, that is, yellowish and thick. Most importantly, it is rich in antibodies and nutrient value, so called “liquid gold”, “super food” or “miracle food” will be derived upon the third or fourth day after delivery for the young and contain everything that your neonate needs in the first few days of life (rich in protein, vitamins, minerals and energy). It has also had health properties that protect newborns and help him fight infection and disease pathogens through his early life [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Boldura O.
      • Milovanov C.
      • Dronca D.
      • Mircu C.
      • Hutu I.
      • et al.
      Colostrum from different animal species - A product for health status enhancement.
      ,]. More recently, colostrum was also defined as “Immune milk” [
      • Mehra R.
      • Singh R.
      • Kumar N.
      • Kumar S.
      • Kumar H.
      Composition, properties and health attributes of bovine colostrum.
      ].

      3. Colostrum constituents (nutritionals, immunological, and growth factors) in humans and various animal species

      Colostrum is complex, nutrient rich biological fluid that is created by female mammals' directly after birth as the first food, providing a young with high-quality nutritional diet and confers develops his immunity through their factors of immune, growth and tissue repair. Colostrum composition and its physic chemical properties vary more greatly from normal milk; this means it reverses the essential difference in their biological function as fractional sources or for health promotion. Regarding the great changes in nutritional value of different types, milk can help choose the best for human nutrition. However, the physicochemical composition changes dramatically in the first few days those distinguish it from mature milk. Not only is it an excellent source of macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, fat) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants), but also has high values for many bioactive substances, so it is considered one of the best natural food supplements. Generally, colostrum has not so much lactose but rather more protein, fat, peptides, non-protein nitrogen, vitamins, minerals, ash, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and nucleotides than normal milk, all these components' contents (except lactose) decline quickly during the initial three days postpartum. All colostrum Igs (IgG1, IgG2, IgM, IgA) achieved much greater levels that decreased rapidly and gradually within the first 0–72 h postpartum parallel to the transition from colostrum to normal milk, antimicrobial peptides (lactoferrin LF, lactoperoxidase LP, lysozyme LZ) and growth factors [Epidermal growth factor (EGF), Transforming (TGFα, TGFβ), Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1, IGF-2)], Frioblast (FGF), Platelet derivative (PDGF), Growth hormone (GH) and vascular endothelial] plus anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and immune-enhancing components, which necessary for the survival and healthy life of offspring, helps promote growth and health by providing passive immunity. The composition of colostrum changes hourly as its biological and nutritional value decreases over time; this is an important reason to provide colostrum soon after calving [
      • Staley T.E.
      • Bush L.J.
      Receptor mechanisms of the neonatal intestine and their relationship to immunoglobulin absorption and disease.
      ,
      • Korhonen H.
      • Marnila P.
      • Gill H.S.
      Bovine milk antibodies for health.
      ,
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Hassan L.K.
      • Farahat E.S.A.
      Impact of heat treatments and some technological processing on immunoglobulins of Egyptian buffalo’s milk.
      ,
      • Mehra R.
      • Singh R.
      • Kumar N.
      • Kumar S.
      • Kumar H.
      Composition, properties and health attributes of bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Kulkarni P.R.
      • Pimpale N.V.
      Colostrum - a review.
      ,
      • Pakkanen R.
      • Aalto J.
      Growth factor and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Weiner C.
      • Pan Q.
      • Hurtig M.
      • Boren T.
      • Bostwick E.
      • Hammarstrom L.
      Passive immunity against human pathogens using bovine antibodies.
      ,
      • Blum J.W.
      • Hammon H.M.
      Colostrum effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and on nutritional, endocrine and metabolic parameters on neonatal calves.
      ,
      • Playford R.J.
      Peptide therapy and the gastroenterologist: colostrum and milk-derived growth factors.
      ,
      • Uruakpa F.O.
      • Ismond M.A.H.
      • Akobundu E.N.T.
      Colostrum and its benefits: A review.
      ,
      • Thapa B.R.
      Health factors in colostrum.
      ,
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Velciov A.B.
      • Scurtu M.
      • Ahmadi T.
      • Olariu L.
      Benefits of bovine colostrum in nutraceutical products.
      • Rathe M.
      • Müller K.
      • Sangild P.T.
      • Husby S.
      Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.
      ].
      The composition of colostrum and mature milk varies from one species to another and is different for various breeds [
      • Eddleman H.
      Composition of human, cow and goats milk.
      ]. All milk types differ in their nutritional value and have uniquely specific and desirable features, helping to choose the best food for human nutrition. However, human and mare milks contain the lowest levels that cause arteriosclerosis and thrombosis, so they are the best nutritional source for people at risk of developing cardiovascular disease [
      • Pietrzak-Fiecko R.
      • Kamelska-Sadowska A.M.
      The comparison of nutritional value of human milk with other mammals’ milk.
      ].
      Colostrum components of different animal species are very greatly differing from that of humans and do not have a typical composition and highly fluctuating due to several factors (mammalian kind, breed, genetic, physiological, nutritional and environmental), diet and nutrition program. Colostrum has the highest levels of TS and fat in ewes' colostrum, followed by cow and goat colostrum in order. In most mammals' colostrum, the minerals (copper, manganese, and zinc) have the highest levels and gradually decrease from 6 to 48 h after birth [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Boldura O.
      • Milovanov C.
      • Dronca D.
      • Mircu C.
      • Hutu I.
      • et al.
      Colostrum from different animal species - A product for health status enhancement.
      ]. Too colostrum composition varies significantly over time within 24 h after birth, which immediately develops requirements for newborns. Goat milk has a great ability to prevent several diseases compared with different animals' milks; this is due to its strong nutritional and nutraceutical properties that make it more suitable for infants, elderly, and convalescence [
      • Kumar H.
      • Yadav D.
      • Kumar N.
      • Seth R.
      • Goyal A.K.
      Nutritional and nutraceutical properties of goat milk-a review.
      ]. While the BC and milk composition are distinguished in quality and quantity than that of human milk because of their diet and rumen presence, where it has greatly less lactose than human milk, but is much more protein than human milk [
      • Jenness R.
      Symposium: species variation in mammary gland function, Lactational performance of various mammalian species.
      ]. Commonly, bovine milk is the main mammalian milk that human consumes as a food commodity [
      • Haug A.
      • Hostmark A.T.
      • Harstad O.M.
      Bovine milk in human nutrition-a review.
      ]. Additionally, colostrum has much higher protein content than in milk, fat content also had the same trend in some types like sheep [
      • Or-Rashid M.M.
      • Fisher R.
      • Karrow N.
      • AlZahal O.
      • McBride B.W.
      Fatty acid profile of colostrum and milk of ewes supplemented with fish meal and the subsequent plasma fatty acid status of their lambs.
      ,
      • Meyer A.M.
      • Reed J.J.
      • Neville T.L.
      • Thorson J.F.
      • Maddock-Carlin K.R.
      • Taylor J.B.
      • et al.
      Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation affect yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes.
      ] and horse [
      • Csapo J.
      • Stefler J.
      • Martin T.G.
      • Makray S.
      • Csapo-Kiss Z.
      Composition of mares' colostrum and milk. Fat content, fatty acid composition and vitamin content.
      ,
      • Pikul J.
      • Wojtowski J.
      • Dankow R.
      • Kuckzynsk B.
      • Lojek J.
      Fat content and fatty acids profile of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses (Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) during six months of lactation.
      ], but lower in colostrum than in milk in some other types like camel [
      • Zhang H.
      • Yao J.
      • Zhao D.
      • Liu H.
      • Li J.
      Changes in chemical composition of Alxa Bactrian camel milk during lactation.
      ] and human [
      • Saint L.
      • Smith M.
      • Hartmann P.E.
      The yield and nutrient content of colostrum and milk of women from giving birth to 1 month post-partum.
      ]. Finally, in cow colostrum, the fat was highly variable [
      • Quigley J.D.
      • Drewry J.J.
      Nutrient and Immunity Transfer from Cow to Calf Pre- and Postcalving.
      ]. Also, colostrum is a perfect substance for body cell repair and regeneration, due to it contains various growth factors that are insignificant biologically active molecules for renewal and repair of various special and general cells and tissues (like muscle, cartilage) and indirectly affects the metabolism process [
      • Pakkanen R.
      • Aalto J.
      Growth factor and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum.
      ].
      Bovine colostrum contains high levels of many bioactive molecules essential for specific functions, along with important high nutritional levels, such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, lipids, and carbohydrates. Due to these complex components, it can be considered a type of super nutrient []. Additionally, the main components of human beings and BC are sufficiently similar and have the same biological activities in different species [].
      Concerning the composition of camel milk changes after birth, lactose reduces but total solids, protein, fat, and minerals increase [
      • Konuspayeva G.
      • Faye B.
      • Loiseau G.
      • Levieux D.
      Lactoferrin and immunoglobulin contents in camel’s milk (Camelus bacterianus, Camelus dromedaries and Hybrids) from Kazakhstan.
      ,
      • Musaad A.M.
      • Faye B.
      • Al-Mutairi S.E.
      Seasonal and physiological variation of gross composition of camel milk in Saudi Arabia.
      ]. However, camel colostrum is rich in biologically active molecules like antimicrobial peptides (attacking several disease-causing bacteria), antihypertensive peptides (released after enzymatic hydrolysis or milk fermentation) and finally antioxidants [
      • Jrad Z.
      • El Hatmi H.
      • Adt I.
      • Girardet J.M.
      • Cakir-Kiefer C.
      • Jardin J.
      • et al.
      Effect of digestive enzymes on antimicrobial, radical scavenging and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of camel colostrum and milk proteins.
      ]. Moreover, camel colostrum has a good microbial activity that inhibits all tested bacterial growth due to its richness in numerous antimicrobial agents such as Igs and LF [
      • Jrad Z.
      • Oulahal N.
      • Adt I.
      • Khorchani T.
      • Degraeve P.
      • El-Hatmi H.
      Camel colostrum: Nutritional composition and improvement of the antimicrobial activity after enzymatic hydrolysis.
      ]. Likewise, colostrum and normal camel milk have a protective immune reaction against Schistosomiasis mansoni and be used with drugs that treat this disease [
      • Maghraby A.S.
      • Mohamed M.A.
      • Abdel-Salam A.M.
      Anti-schistosomal activity of colostral and mature camel milk on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.
      ].
      Recently, all-mammals colostrum has higher values of antibodies that support good health and growth in infants and newborn animals. It has richer of proteins, Igs, proline-rich polypeptides (PRP), bactericides (LF, LP, LZ), digestive enzymes, growth factors, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and fats, consequently, it is consumed as supplements within various life stages, helps fight infection and promote better gut health [
      • Silva E.G.S.O.
      • Rangel A.H.N.
      • Murmam L.
      • Bezerra M.F.
      • de Oliveira J.P.F.
      Bovine colostrum: Benefits of its use in human food.
      ,]. Additionally, colostrum contains several antimicrobial agents in three groups depending on its function, specific (Igs), nonspecific (LF, LP, LZ) and grouping with specific and nonspecific factors (cytokines) [
      • Playford R.J.
      • Macdonald C.E.
      • Johnson W.S.
      Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.
      ]. Additionally, BC differs than mature milk due to their high levels of proteins (Igs, LF, LP, and LZ) along with being rich in vitamins and minerals [
      • Reyes-Portillo K.A.
      • Soto-Simentala S.
      • Hernandez-Sanchezb H.
      • Quintero-Liraa A.
      • Piloni-Martini J.
      Functional food from bovine colostrum.
      ].
      Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein, belongs to the transferrin family, and binds to iron, present in milk mammals' colostrum, milk, and other secretions. LF oral administration has many functional activities on human and animal health (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidants), where prevents many microbe's growth by binding with iron and thus becomes unavailable to organisms. Bovine LF provides regulation and modulation of the immune system in clinical trials of different animal models in human, rat, sheep, pigs, and cats [
      • Lonnerdal B.
      • Iyer S.
      Lactoferrin: molecular structure and biological function.
      ,
      • Yamauchi K.
      • Wakabayashi H.
      • Hashimoto S.
      • Teraguchi S.
      • Hayasawa H.
      • Tomita M.
      Effects of orally administered bovine lactoferrin on the immune system of healthy volunteers.
      ,
      • Zimecki M.
      • Właszczyk A.
      • Wojciechowski R.
      • Dawiskiba J.
      • Kruzel M.
      Lactoferrin regulates the immune responses in post-surgical patients.
      ,
      • Brock J.H.
      The physiology of lactoferrin.
      ,
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Mahfouz M.B.
      Lactoferrin in relation to biological functions and applications: A review.
      • Yugis A.R.
      • Saputra A.
      • Noviana R.
      • Iskandriati D.
      • Pamungkas J.
      • Suparto I.H.
      Comparison of methods for the purification of goat lactoferrin and antiviral activity to human papillomavirus.
      ]. Also, LF and its supplements appear to be effective in preventing and treating people with COVID-19, where 75 patients were treated with a daily dose (256–384 mg/10 days) orally or topically (Lactyferrin Forte™), which has shown a protective role against infection with the virus. A decrease in the incidence of dry cough, headache, and diarrhea, as well as improvement in breath shortness, muscle pain, fatigue, and loss of smell and taste [
      • Serrano G.
      • Kochergina I.
      • Albors A.
      • Diaz E.
      • Oroval M.
      • Hueso G.
      • et al.
      Liposomal lactoferrin as potential preventative and cure for COVID-19.
      ]. More recently, Miotto et al. [
      • Miotto M.
      • Di Rienzo L.
      • Bo L.
      • Boffi A.
      • Ruocco G.
      • Milanetti E.
      Molecular mechanisms behind anti SARS CoV-2 action of lactoferrin.
      ] mentioned that promising results were obtained using antiviral components, especially; LF has beneficial effects on preventing and calming the coronavirus infection.
      Lactoperoxidase belongs to the peroxidase family whose essential function (in hydrogen peroxide presence) that catalyzes thiocynates oxidation; outcomes are toxic compounds, which inhibit bacterial metabolism by oxidizing essential sulfhydryl groups in microbial enzymes and other proteins [
      • Fox P.F.
      • Kelly A.L.
      Indigenous Enzymes in Milk: Overview and Historical Aspects - Part 1.
      ].
      Lysozyme activity is higher in colostrum than normal milk, an enzyme not digested in digestive but continues to support useful bacteria, capable of destroying the outer wall of Gram-positive bacteria, where stimulated cleavage β1-4 bond between muramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine [
      • Korhonen H.
      Antimicrobial factors in bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Fox P.F.
      • McSweeney P.L.H.
      Dairy chemistry and biochemistry.
      • Farkye N.Y.
      Other Enzymes.
      ].
      Proline-rich polypeptides (PRP) support the thymus and help balance an overactive immune system [

      https://www.vibrantlifeinitiative.org/articles/ColostrumPDR1.pdf; Chapter 1: What’s in Colostrum? Peptide Immunotherapy: Colostrum - A Physicians Reference Guide, Sovereign Health Initiative.

      ].
      Cytokines in colostrum are small peptide molecules that have main immunomodulatory characterizations, including Interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17) are signals that help regulate the immune system; Interferon (IFN-γ) is specialized protein that inhibits virus replication inside all cells of the body as well as Tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) is secreted from inflammatory cells and has multifunctional roles such as its survival, proliferation, differentiation and death [
      • Hagiwara K.
      • Kataoka S.
      • Yamanaka H.
      • Kirisawa R.
      • Iwai H.
      Detection of cytokines in bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Boudry C.
      • Dehoux J.P.
      • Portetelle D.
      • Buldgen A.
      Bovine colostrum as a natural growth promoter of newly weaned piglets: A review. Biotech Agron.
      • Sun Q.
      • Chen X.
      • Yu J.
      • Zen K.
      • Zhang C.Y.
      • Li L.
      Immune modulatory function of abundant immune-related microRNAs in microvesicles from bovine colostrum.
      ]. Today, cytokines (IL-1β, 6, 8, 10, TNF-α) at a higher level are critical in SARS-CoV-2 research, where its imbalance may fail to clear infection and encourage protection from reinfection []. Recent studies show that Colostrum may also help treat patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), these range from mild, asymptomatic cases (fever, cough, shortness breath, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain) to severe acute respiratory syndrome (pneumonia, difficulty breathing, heart, nerve and kidney damage), and worsening cases may be crowned in the failure of many organs. Due to a cytokine release syndrome consisting of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines released into the circulation in the acute phase, causing systemic effects due to over-activation of the immune system [
      • Conti P.
      • Ronconi G.
      • Caraffa A.
      • Gallenga C.E.
      • Ross R.
      • Frydas I.
      • et al.
      Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and lung inflammation by COVID-19: Anti-inflammatory strategies.
      ], which can be fatal [
      • Tay M.Z.
      • Poh C.M.
      • Rénia L.
      • MacAry P.A.
      • Ng L.F.P.
      The trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, inflammation and intervention.
      ].
      Each type of mammal's colostrum has different chemical composition and bioactive factors, where some are similar and others completely different within the few first hours and days of birth from the literature review as present in Tables 1 and 2. These variations are mainly due to differences in kind, breed and feeding systems. Where the colostrum has several types of proteins, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, Igs, LF, LP, LZ, cytokines, and growth factors, all components help the offspring grow vital organs and develop passive immunity [
      • Morris J.A.
      • Wray C.
      • Sojka W.J.
      Passive protection of lambs against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: role of antibodies in serum and colostrums.
      ,
      • Stephan W.
      • Dichtelmuller H.
      • Lissner R.
      Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy.
      ,
      • Ebina T.
      • Ohta M.
      • Kanamaru Y.
      • Yamamoto-Osumi Y.
      • Baba K.
      Passive immunizations of suckling mice and infants with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus.
      • Baintner K.
      Transmission of antibodies from mother to young: Evolutionary strategies in a proteolytic environment. Vet Immuno.
      ]. I summarized the main components of the colostrum in humans and different animals' species in Fig. 1.
      Table 1Average the gross chemical composition (%) of colostrum and milk in human and main various animal species at 0–12, 24 h and normal milk of delivery.
      SpeciesTimeTotal solidsTotal proteinFatLactoseAshReferences
      Human
      Human6 h12.401.203.807.000.21[
      • Eddleman H.
      Composition of human, cow and goats milk.
      ]
      Homo sapiens24 h-2.302.905.30-[
      • Jones R.E.
      • Lopez K.H.
      ]
      EgyptianNormal10.711.942.106.450.22[
      • Shamsia S.M.
      Nutritional and therapeutic properties of camel and human milks.
      ]
      Cow
      Holstein0 h24.1913.458.041.751.03[
      • Abd El-Fattah A.M.
      • Abd Rabo F.H.
      • EL-Dieb S.M.
      • El-Kashef H.A.
      Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows.
      ]
      12 h21.0010.806.202.020.84
      24 h19.009.755.902.700.81
      14 d16.003.003.904.570.66
      Czech piedMean (2 h)23.6516.127.332.64-[
      • Hyrslova I.
      • Krausova G.
      • Michlova T.
      • Kana A.
      • Curda L.
      Fermentation ability of bovine colostrum by different probiotic strains.
      ]
      Friesian6 h12.803.303.804.800.71[
      • Hadjipanayiotou M.
      Composition of ewe, goat and cow milk and of colostrum of ewes and goats.
      ]
      Egyptian baladi0–12 h19.8310.655.682.501.01[
      • El-Zahar K.M.
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Abdel-Ghany A.S.
      Gross antibodies, chemical composition of bovine milk and its influence by thermal stability.
      ]
      24 h17.559.264.762.590.94
      7 d12.224.482.944.040.75
      Bos Taurus24 h-14.906.702.50-[
      • Kehoe S.I.
      • Jayarao B.M.
      • Heinrichs A.J.
      A survey of bovine colostrum composition and colostrum management practices on Pennsylvania dairy farms.
      ]
      Buffalo
      Egyptian baladi0 h26.6713.469.592.501.26[
      • Abd El-Fattah A.M.
      • Abd Rabo F.H.
      • EL-Dieb S.M.
      • El-Kashef H.A.
      Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows.
      ]
      12 h23.009.7510.002.921.05
      24 h21.008.708.803.180.90
      14 d13.003.807.004.420.68
      Egyptian baladi0–12 h31.2213.53--0.98[
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Hassan L.K.
      • Farahat E.S.A.
      Impact of heat treatments and some technological processing on immunoglobulins of Egyptian buffalo’s milk.
      ]
      24 h24.6410.96--0.93
      7 d13.813.87--0.73
      15 d13.703.01--0.66
      Bubalus bubalis24 h-18.755.442.7-[
      • Arain H.H.
      • Khaskheli M.
      • Arain M.A.
      • Soomro A.H.
      • Nizamani A.H.
      Heat stability and quality characteristics of postpartum Buffalo milk.
      ]
      Camel
      Egyptian dromedary3 h15.2811.230.402.651.00[
      • El-Agamy E.I.
      Studies on camel’s milk.
      ]
      Egyptian dromedary24 h21.1911.723.304.471.70[
      • El-Agamy E.I.
      Camel colostrum. I. Physicochemical and microbiological study.
      ]
      Camelus dromedaries24 h-13.001.503.60-[
      • Merin U.
      • Bernstein S.
      • Van Creveld C.
      • Yagil R.
      • Gollop N.
      Camel (Camelus dromedarius) colostrum and milk composition during the lactation.
      ]
      Camelus bactrianus24 h-19.200.305.90-[
      • El-Hatmi H.
      • Girardet J.M.
      • Gaillard J.L.
      • Yahyaoui M.H.
      • Attia H.
      Characterisation of whey proteins of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk and colostrum.
      ]
      Camelus dromedariesNormal13.203.464.004.860.87[
      • Shamsia S.M.
      Nutritional and therapeutic properties of camel and human milks.
      ]
      Goat
      Egyptian baladi0 h33.8920.069.692.751.06[
      • Kholif A.M.
      • El-Loly M.M.
      Colostral and blood sera immunoglobulin concentrations among goats and sheep.
      ]
      3 h29.6816.948.373.331.04
      6 h26.1715.286.373.851.01
      24 h19.218.065.874.290.98
      10 d12.493.952.774.830.93
      Damascus6 h13.003.404.104.700.77[
      • Hadjipanayiotou M.
      Composition of ewe, goat and cow milk and of colostrum of ewes and goats.
      ]
      Capra hircus24 h-10.247.731.93-[
      • Yang X.Y.
      • Chen J.P.
      • Zhang F.X.
      Research on the chemical composition of Saanen goat colostrum.
      ]
      Ewe
      Egyptian baladi0 h30.8517.359.203.161.14[
      • Kholif A.M.
      • El-Loly M.M.
      Colostral and blood sera immunoglobulin concentrations among goats and sheep.
      ]
      3 h28.8415.438.903.431.08
      6 h26.9914.238.183.521.06
      24 h19.898.975.754.161.01
      10 d16.075.175.054.910.94
      Massese6 h24.5812.448.213.230.59[
      • Martini M.
      • Iolanda A.
      • Salari F.
      The lipid component of Massese ewe’s colostrum: Morphometric characteristics of milk fat globules and fatty acid profile.
      ]
      Ovis aries24 h-21.2414.043.26-[
      • Niznikowski R.
      • Popielarczyk D.
      • Strzelec E.
      • Wojtowski J.
      • Dankow R.
      • Pikul J.
      • et al.
      The effect of early colostrum collection on selected performance traits in sheep.
      ]
      Table 2Bioactive factors (mg/mL) of colostrum and milk in human and main various animal species at (0–12), 24 h and normal milk of delivery.
      SpeciesTimeTotal IgGIgG1IgG2IgMIgALFLPLZRef.
      Human
      Egyptian0–12 h0.88--14.0536.53---[
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Guirguis A.H.
      • Abdel-Ghany A.S.
      Antibodies of human milk within the first week of birth.
      ]
      24 h0.53--7.9923.90---
      7 d0.13--0.374.23---
      Indian1 d0.59--1.7133.5942.0-14.2 mg/100ml[
      • Reddy V.
      • Bhaskaram C.
      • Raghuramulu N.
      • Jagadeesan V.
      Antimicrobial factors in human milk.
      ]
      Normal0.290.2911.9625.0-24.8 mg/100ml
      EgyptianNormal1.14----1.95-0.65 μg/mL[
      • Shamsia S.M.
      Nutritional and therapeutic properties of camel and human milks.
      ]
      Homo sapiens24 h0.43--10.5917.04---[
      • Hurley W.L.
      • Theil P.K.
      Immunoglobulins in Mammary Secretions.
      ]
      Cow
      Holstein0 h32.33--3.20-1.20--[
      • Abd El-Fattah A.M.
      • Abd Rabo F.H.
      • EL-Dieb S.M.
      • El-Kashef H.A.
      Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows.
      ]
      6 h20.00--2.00-1.00--
      5 d1.20--0.13-0.30--
      14 d0.75--0.11-0.16--
      Czech piedMean (2 h)-52.54 mg/mL---397.5

      μg/L
      397.5 unit/L516.1 unit/L[
      • Hyrslova I.
      • Krausova G.
      • Michlova T.
      • Kana A.
      • Curda L.
      Fermentation ability of bovine colostrum by different probiotic strains.
      ]
      Bos Taurus12 h32–21220–20012.008.073.05---[
      • Hurley W.L.
      • Theil P.K.
      Immunoglobulins in Mammary Secretions.
      ]
      Egyptian baladi0–12 h12.26-------[
      • El-Zahar K.M.
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Abdel-Ghany A.S.
      Gross antibodies, chemical composition of bovine milk and its influence by thermal stability.
      ]
      24 h11.84-------
      7 d5.52-------
      Bos Taurus24 h50.50--4.203.90---[
      • Stelwagen K.
      • Carpenter E.
      • Haigh B.
      • Hodgkinson A.
      • Wheeler T.T.
      Immune components of bovine colostrum and milk.
      ]
      Buffalo
      Egyptian baladi0 h33.20--3.00-1.09--[
      • Abd El-Fattah A.M.
      • Abd Rabo F.H.
      • EL-Dieb S.M.
      • El-Kashef H.A.
      Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows.
      ]
      6 h22.50--2.45-0.95--
      5 d1.30--0.14-0.27--
      14 d0.78--0.12-0.12--
      Egyptian baladi0–12 h-10.727.245.520.64---[
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Hassan L.K.
      • Farahat E.S.A.
      Impact of heat treatments and some technological processing on immunoglobulins of Egyptian buffalo’s milk.
      ]
      24 h-10.546.474.380.52---
      7 d-5.833.632.870.18---
      15 d-4.052.701.480.02---
      Bubalus bubalis24 h54.00--5.223.22---[
      • Dang A.K.
      • Kapila S.
      • Purohit M.
      • Singh C.
      Changes in colostrum of Murrah buffaloes after calving.
      ]
      Camel
      Egyptian dromedary24 h-53.804.94--0.84 g/L-103 μg/100ml[
      • El-Agamy E.I.
      Camel colostrum: II. Antimicrobial factors.
      ]
      7 d-6.020.40--0.07 g/L-87 μg/100ml
      14 d-1.350.11--0.04 g/L-73 μg/100ml
      Camelus bactrianus24 h47.2-------[
      • El-Hatmi H.
      • Girardet J.M.
      • Gaillard J.L.
      • Yahyaoui M.H.
      • Attia H.
      Characterisation of whey proteins of camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk and colostrum.
      ]
      Camelus dromedariesNormal1.54----0.24-0.06 μg/mL[
      • Shamsia S.M.
      Nutritional and therapeutic properties of camel and human milks.
      ]
      Goat
      Egyptian baladi0 h63.10--8.305.40---[
      • Kholif A.M.
      • El-Loly M.M.
      Colostral and blood sera immunoglobulin concentrations among goats and sheep.
      ]
      24 h57.80--6.304.20---
      48 h52.40--4.903.10---
      10 d44.10--4.101.40---
      Capra hircus24 h50–60--1.6–5.20.9–2.4---[
      • Park Y.W.
      Bioactive components of goat milk.
      ]
      Ewe
      Egyptian baladi0 h61.20--5.603.40---[
      • Kholif A.M.
      • El-Loly M.M.
      Colostral and blood sera immunoglobulin concentrations among goats and sheep.
      ]
      24 h45.40--2.303.20---
      48 h42.80--2.102.20---
      10 d40.80--2.001.00---
      Ovis aries24 h101.20--2.906.20---[
      • Smith W.D.
      • Wells P.W.
      • Burrells C.
      • Dawson A.M.
      Maternal immunoglobulins and parainfluenza 3 virus inhibitors in the nasal and lachrymal secretions and serum of newborn lambs.
      ]
      Fig. 1
      Fig. 1Colostrum main components in human and various animal species.

      4. Many uses of colostrum and its health benefits

      Year's thousands ago before antibiotic discovery, colostrum have used to treat various diseases due to its medicinal importance. It was used in a natural form or dietary supplement due to its targeted excellent benefits as part of health-promoting diet and as an alternative or supplement to the medical treatment of many human illnesses. Additionally, it has highly nutritious and several powerful health benefits because it prevents nutrient deficiencies, protects against diseases and promotes healthy growth and development.

      4.1 Colostrum and its importance in improving health care

      The immune system is defined as the body ability to protect themselves from pathogens and has two basic parts, innate (general) and acquired (specific), that are working closely together and conduct various functions []. Passive immunization is either by transferring pre-birth Igs through the mother's placenta or by colostrum postpartum in the first hours of the mother to her young's, where the ungulates are without antibodies until absorbed from colostrum [
      • Baintner K.
      Transmission of antibodies from mother to young: Evolutionary strategies in a proteolytic environment. Vet Immuno.
      ]. Therefore, in most species, if the newborn does not obtain enough colostrum with abundance Igs (the main role in passive immunity transfer) during the first few hours can survive (until their immune system is fully developed and able to produce antibodies effectively in response to infection or immunization), here usually occurs failure of passive immunity transfer may reach death [].
      Since colostrum components and its preparations have remarkable properties, it can be used to promote a healthy diet or as alternatives and supplements in medical treats of several human diseases for all ages [
      • Alexieva B.
      • Markova T.
      • Nikolova E.
      Bovine colostrum: The promising nutraceutical.
      ,
      • Bozanic R.
      Importance and utilization of colostrum.
      ]. It can also be used to boost the immune system in both healthy and chronically ill persons [
      • Pakkanen R.
      • Aalto J.
      Growth factor and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Van Hooijdonk A.C.
      • Kussendrager K.D.
      • Steijns J.M.
      In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defence.
      ]. Besides, colostrum and whey supplementation were famously and has many medical advantages for healthy adults [
      • Blair M.
      • Kellow N.J.
      • Dordevic A.L.
      • Evans S.
      • Caissutti J.
      • McCaffrey T.A.
      Health benefits of whey or colostrum supplementation in adults ≥35 years, a Systematic review.
      ]. Therefore, colostrum can be an added to many products to support the immune system, digestive diseases, athletic formulas, tablets, and capsules [

      https://www.vibrantlifeinitiative.org/articles/ColostrumPDR1.pdf; Chapter 1: What’s in Colostrum? Peptide Immunotherapy: Colostrum - A Physicians Reference Guide, Sovereign Health Initiative.

      ,]. Likewise, it contributes to specific health conditions and reduces some disease risks such as fruits, vegetables, grains, fortified products, and some nutritional supplements [
      • Rani D.S.
      • Penchalaraju M.
      A review different types of functional foods and their health benefits.
      ].
      Many studies have shown that bovine (cow and buffalo) colostrum is 100-1000 times stronger than human colostrum, which implies human infants can be depending on it for medical advantages [
      • Van Hooijdonk A.C.
      • Kussendrager K.D.
      • Steijns J.M.
      In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defence.
      ,
      • Sarker S.A.
      • Casswall T.H.
      • Mahalanabis D.
      • Alam N.H.
      • Albert M.J.
      • Brüssow H.
      • et al.
      Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunoglobulin from immunized bovine colostrums.
      ,
      • Elfstrand L.
      • Lindmark-Mansson H.
      • Paulsson M.
      • Nyberg L.
      • Akesson B.
      Immunoglobulins, growth factors and growth hormone in bovine colostrum and the effects of processing.
      ]. BC helps reduce acute and chronic upper respiratory tract inflammation within exercise and diarrhea in children [
      • Carol A.
      • Witkamp R.F.
      • Wichers H.J.
      • Mensink M.
      Bovine colostrum supplementation’s lack of effect on immune variables during shortterm intense exercise in well-trained athletes.
      ,
      • Duff W.
      • Chilibeck P.D.
      • Rooke J.J.
      • Kaviani M.
      • Krentz J.R.
      • Haines D.M.
      The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation in older adults during resistance training.
      • Jones A.W.
      • March D.S.
      • Curtis F.
      • Bridle C.
      Bovine colostrum supplementation and upper respiratory symptoms during exercise training: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
      ]. Similarly, BC and its products decrease the frequency and relief of infectious diarrhea symptoms in children [
      • Li J.
      • Xu Y.W.
      • Jiang J.J.
      • Song Q.K.
      Bovine colostrum and product intervention associated with relief of childhood infectious diarrhea.
      ]. Evidence indicates that BC has many therapeutic applications in humans [
      • Rathe M.
      • Müller K.
      • Sangild P.T.
      • Husby S.
      Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.
      ].
      Whereas intake BC supplements (20g/2 weeks) increased the SIgA value in saliva to 33% [
      • Mero A.
      • Kahkonen J.
      • Nykanen T.
      • Parviainen T.
      • Jokinen I.
      • Takala T.
      • et al.
      IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training.
      ], while using a chocolate drink containing (10g BC/12 weeks) increased by 79% during rest for runners [
      • Crooks C.
      • Wall C.R.
      • Cross M.L.
      • Rutherfurd-Markwick K.J.
      The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on salivary IgA in distance runners.
      ].
      Recent findings have shown that BC had a clearly different fatty acid content than normal milk, where much higher levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids [
      • O’Callaghan T.F.
      • O’Donovan M.
      • Murphy J.P.
      • Sugrue K.
      • Mannion D.
      • McCarthy W.P.
      • et al.
      Evolution of the bovine milk fatty acid profile - From colostrum to milk five days post parturition.
      ]. Moreover, it is used in the human diet as a nutritional supplement or functional foods, which can help improve various diseases of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and immune system [
      • Reyes-Portillo K.A.
      • Soto-Simentala S.
      • Hernandez-Sanchezb H.
      • Quintero-Liraa A.
      • Piloni-Martini J.
      Functional food from bovine colostrum.
      ]. It also used as a biologically active food supplement for sensitive patients like preterm infants, treat cancer with chemotherapy, gut surgery and suffer from intestinal inflammation or diarrhea related to antibiotics [
      • Chatterton D.E.W.
      • Aagaard S.
      • Hansen T.H.
      • Nguyen D.N.
      • De Gobba C.
      • Lametsch R.
      • et al.
      Bioactive proteins in bovine colostrum and effects of heating, drying and irradiation.
      ]. Too, BC is higher in LF levels that have strong properties of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidants. It also plays an important role for anticancer in humans, where BC tablets are used as an effective way to reduce low-grade tumor intracervical, and bandages soaked in BC to treat diabetic foot ulcers and chronic wounds [
      • Bagwe S.
      • Yadav P.
      • Kaur G.
      • Tuli H.S.
      • Buttar H.S.
      Therapeutic applications of human and bovine colostrum in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and distinctive cancer types: the current evidence.
      ]. Moreover, colostrum administration protocol can be used to treat premature infants with immunotherapy, where immune protective compounds of colostrum can be absorbed through the lymph tissue in the pharynx [
      • Martins C.C.
      • Ramos M.S.X.
      • Amaral M.V.C.
      • Costa J.S.P.
      • Cerqueira E.S.
      • Vieira T.O.
      • et al.
      Colostrum oropharyngeal immunotherapy for very low birth weight preterm infants: protocol of an intervention study.
      ].
      A more recent systematic review, Chandwe & Kelly [
      • Chandwe K.
      • Kelly P.
      Colostrum therapy for human gastrointestinal health and disease.
      ] mentioned that BC contains several nutrients, growth factors, hormones, and paracrine factors that contribute to mucosal healing in various infective, inflammatory, such as enteropathy due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diarrhea, intestinal failure, and damage due to cancer therapy. They also stated that in animal models, BC benefits NSAID enteropathy, IBD, and intestinal failure. While in human trials, there is substantial evidence of efficacy of bovine colostrum in inflammatory bowel disease and in infectious diarrhea.

      4.2 Colostrum as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and hyper-immune

      4.2.1 Functional foods

      Currently, functional foods called also (nutraceuticals) gain popularity in the health community; it has high nutritional value and many powerful health benefits due to preventing nutrient deficiency, protecting against diseases and promoting health growth and development. These are also supplements or additional ingredients for improving health plus its nutritional value. Similarly, functional foods are defined as products or ingredients that have expected healthful benefits plus its normal nutrients, where consumer demand increases for these foods due to their capable of providing good health and preventing diseases. Hence, itself colostrum or its fractions have extraordinary potential as a functional food, which incorporates to achieve healthy food products either dairy or other one [
      • Rachael L.
      • Marengo K.
      What are functional foods?.
      ]. Many researchers have used different types of animal colostrum in the manufacture of various functional products for human consumption that provide good health and prevent diseases. These functional products are described in more detail and recent studies in Part 4.3.

      4.2.2 Nutraceuticals

      Nutraceutical are a word that collects between nutrition and pharmaceuticals, considered as a nutritional product that contributes medical benefits as an alternative treatment, which prevents and treat infective diseases in babies, children and adults [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Velciov A.B.
      • Scurtu M.
      • Ahmadi T.
      • Olariu L.
      Benefits of bovine colostrum in nutraceutical products.
      ,
      • Bagwe S.
      • Tharappel L.J.P.
      • Kaur G.
      • Buttar H.S.
      Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.
      ]. Colostrum is a natural product rich in macro- and micro-nutrients, lower in lactose than mature milk, and immune components that contribute to the acquired and innate immune systems. These all-immune factors assume an important role in the transmission of both passive immunity to newborns and the host's protective immunity against its mammary gland, maintaining local immunity, systemic immunity, mucosal integrity, athletic performance, permeability and antigen handling. Thus, it is considered to be one of the best natural food supplements for several nutraceutical products that provide health and medicinal benefits to prevent and treat many diseases [
      • Priyatama P.V.
      Immunological aspect of colostrum as a preventative medication.
      ]. It is used in a great range of gastrointestinal ailments, infections and disorders associated with immune deficiency [
      • Thapa B.R.
      Health factors in colostrum.
      ,
      • Godhia M.L.
      • Patel N.
      Colostrum-its composition, benefits as a nutraceutical - A review.
      ]. Additionally, it was used industrially in nutritional supplements as micro-encapsulated and instant or frozen products. Most BC is converted into powder supplements for humans and animals. Further, it can be used in various treatments because of its composition in nutraceuticals, also a cow gives a large amount of colostrum than goat or ewes [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Scurtu M.
      • Filimon N.
      • Mederle N.
      • Tulcan C.
      • Milovanov C.
      • et al.
      Colostrum a natural valuable product for newborn animal and industry.
      ,
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Boldura O.
      • Milovanov C.
      • Dronca D.
      • Mircu C.
      • Hutu I.
      • et al.
      Colostrum from different animal species - A product for health status enhancement.
      ]. However, a high-pressure treatment technique is used for the preservation of BC Igs and its supplements can improve human immunity [
      • Borad S.G.
      • Singh A.K.
      Colostrum immunoglobulins: Processing, preservation and application aspects.
      ]. In recent research, colostrum derived from different mammals has gained increasing popularity in human nutrition and takes advantage of its functional benefits [
      • Barreto I.M.L.G.
      • Rangel A.H.N.
      • Urbano S.A.
      • Bezerra J.S.
      • Oliveira H.A.A.
      Equine milk and its potential use in the human diet.
      ]. Also, it is used to treat cancer, AIDS, polio, heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis [
      • Mehra R.
      • Singh R.
      • Kumar N.
      • Kumar S.
      • Kumar H.
      Composition, properties and health attributes of bovine colostrum.
      ].

      4.2.3 Hyper-immune colostrum and milk

      Pregnant cows immunized before birth with a specific much attenuated pathogen blend, the resultant called immune milk (IM) or hyper-immune bovine colostrum (HBC) [
      • Campbell B.
      • Petersen W.E.
      Immune milk - A historical survey.
      ]. Furthermore, its preparations are used to treat or prevent infection of the digestive system; these preparations play an important role in promoting health as a substitute or supplement to medical treatment systems for certain consumer groups [
      • Korhonen H.
      Colostrum immunoglobulins and the complement system-potential ingredients of functional foods.
      ]. Moreover, HBC is safe oral besides being more effective in both cost and alternative to antibiotic treatment [
      • Sponseller J.K.
      • Steele J.A.
      • Schmidt D.J.
      • Kim H.B.
      • Beamer G.
      • Sun X.
      • et al.
      Hyperimmune bovine colostrum as a novel therapy to combat clostridium difficile infection.
      ], it also richest in lipopolysaccharide antibodies (anti-LPS) that affects directly or indirectly on mammalian micro-biome formation, where relief and treats kidney failure, high blood pressure, heart disease, atherosclerosis and different neuropsychiatric cases [
      Patent WO2017191638A1
      Hyperimmune colostrum in the modulation and treatment of conditions associated with the mammalian microbiome. International Application Published under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT).
      ].
      Bovine colostrum and milk are rich IgG and related to human intestinal and respiratory pathogens, thus, cow colostrum-IgG an effective in enhancing the immune response of children with HIV (increasing in lymphocytes, blood hemoglobin levels and serum albumin) [
      • Odong P.
      • Angwech P.
      • Obol J.
      • Floren C.
      Management of HIV in children using a bovine colostrum-based food product - an observational field study.
      ]. Also, there was a major improvement in patients with HIV-associated (diarrhea and body weight gain or lymphocyte cells [
      • Floren C.H.
      • Chinenye S.
      • Elfstrand L.
      • Hagman C.
      • Ihse I.
      ColoPlus a new product based on bovine colostrum, alleviates HIV-associated diarrhea.
      ,
      • Suwarba I.G.N.
      • Sudaryat S.
      • Hendra S.
      • Suandi I.K.G.
      • Widiana R.
      The role of bovine colostrum on recovery time and length of hospital stay of acute diarrhea in infants and children: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.
      • Kaducu F.O.
      • Okia S.A.
      • Upenytho G.
      • Elfstrand L.
      • Florén C.H.
      Effect of bovine colostrum-based food supplement in the treatment of HIV-associated diarrhea in Northern Uganda: a randomized controlled trial.
      ]. It is due to IgG isolated from colostrum has trypsin inhibitors that enhance stay throughout the gut [
      • Warny M.
      • Fatimi A.
      • Bostwick E.F.
      • Laine D.C.
      • Lebel F.
      • Lamont J.T.
      • et al.
      Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine.
      ,
      • Jasion V.S.
      • Burnett B.P.
      Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans.
      ]. Additionally, cows vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 can produce specific antibodies (IgG) in the colostrum and milk, where microfiltration raw immune milk becomes a drink widely available for the whole French population, it achieves commercial success and grant protection short-term from human infection and can use as an alternative until vaccines are available. This technological process removes all pathogens from the milk without protein denaturing or nutritional changes that the UHT process could cause [
      • Weiner C.
      • Pan Q.
      • Hurtig M.
      • Boren T.
      • Bostwick E.
      • Hammarstrom L.
      Passive immunity against human pathogens using bovine antibodies.
      ,
      • Kumar P.
      • Sharma N.
      • Ranjan R.
      • Kumar S.
      • Bhat Z.F.
      • Jeong D.K.
      Perspective of membrane technology in dairy industry: a review.
      ,
      • Hansen F.S.
      • Hogan A.S.
      • Tobin J.
      • Rasmussen T.J.
      • Larsen B.L.
      • Wiking L.
      Microfiltration of raw milk for production of high-purity milk fat globule membrane material.
      ]. Thus, due to the above multiple functions of colostrum, IM or HBC, it was called a miracle food.
      Furthermore, in a recent study, Fox et al. [
      • Fox A.
      • Marino J.
      • Amanat F.
      • Krammer F.
      • Hahn-Holbrook J.
      • Zolla-Pazner S.
      • et al.
      Evidence of a significant secretory-IgA-dominant SARS-CoV-2 immune response in human milk following recovery from COVID-19.
      ] found that breast milk of women previously infected with CoVID-19 showed an IgA reaction against SARS-CoV-2, indicating that her milk contains specific immune activity against it, and thus constitutes a factor that can assist in preventing and treating infection. Another treatment of CoVID-19 under investigation is the administration of hyper-immune Igs from patients previously infected with the virus as a mean of controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection [
      • De Alwis R.
      • Chen S.
      • Gan E.S.
      • Ooi E.E.
      Impact of immune enhancement on COVID-19 polyclonal hyperimmune globulin therapy and vaccine development.
      ,
      • Valk S.J.
      • Piechotta V.
      • Chai K.L.
      • Doree C.
      • Monsef I.
      • Wood E.M.
      • et al.
      Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: A rapid review.
      ].
      In a more recent study, Playford & Weiser [
      • Playford R.J.
      • Weiser M.J.
      Bovine colostrum: its constituents and uses.
      ] reviewed that the therapeutic value of bovine colostrum can be obtained specifically for individual cases (i.e. giving hyper-immune milk or BC) to immunocompromised patients and suffering from bowel diseases, thus tacking the problem of gut inflammation while promoting gut repair.

      4.3 Colostrum as a natural supplement in different product manufacturers

      Specialty dairy products fortified with colostrum-rich Igs are promising way to support the immune function in immune-compromised people such as infants, children, and the elderly [
      • Ulfman L.H.
      • Leusen J.H.W.
      • Savelkoul H.F.J.
      • Warner J.O.
      • van Neerven R.J.J.
      Effects of bovine immunoglobulins on immune function, allergy and infection.
      ]. In this context, IgG of most mammals affects human therapy as given passive immunity; it is considered one of the main components in BC and milk as an immunological activity against infectious diseases. So, several researchers were used bovine or buffalo colostrum addition as a natural food supplement in the manufacture of different products for human consumption, for example, but not limited, milk drinks and butter [
      • Saalfeld M.H.
      • Pereira D.I.B.
      • Silveira K.R.K.
      • Diniz G.L.
      • Kringel D.H.
      • Alves M.I.
      • et al.
      Colostro: A redescoberta de um alimento saudável, nutritivo e com potencial probiótico.
      ], ice cream [
      • Mouton E.
      • Aryana K.J.
      Influence of colostrum on the characteristics of ice cream.
      ], milk, and food fermentation [
      • Ruiz P.
      • Barragan O.
      • Sesena S.
      • Palop M.L.
      Functional properties and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat colostrum for application in food fermentations.
      ,
      • Nazir T.
      • Pal M.A.
      • Manzoor A.
      Effect of admixing varying levels of whole milk to the colostrum on the sensory quality of fermented colostrum product.
      ], yogurt [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Velciov A.B.
      • Scurtu M.
      • Ahmadi T.
      • Olariu L.
      Benefits of bovine colostrum in nutraceutical products.
      ,
      • Aryana K.J.
      • Albers E.
      • Cueva O.
      Colostrum fortified probiotic fat free yogurt.
      ,
      • Abdel-Ghany A.S.
      • Zaki D.A.
      Production of novel functional yoghurt fortified with bovine colostrum and date syrup for children.
      ,
      • Bomba A.
      • Babuchowski A.
      • Borawski K.
      • Kotowski M.
      Stirred yoghurts fortified with colostrum-influence of colostrum addition on its acidification process and rheological properties.
      • Saleh A.E.
      • Moussa M.A.M.
      • Hassabo M.R.
      • Ewis A.M.
      Manufacturing functional stirred yoghurt supported by colostrum.
      ], Kefir [
      • Ayar A.
      • Sicrama H.
      • Cetin O.
      The effect of bovine colostrum on the lactic flora of yogurt and kefir.
      ,
      • Cotarlet M.
      • Vasile A.M.
      • Cantaragiu A.M.
      • Gaspar-Pintiliescu A.
      • Craciunescu O.
      • Oancea A.
      • et al.
      Colostrum-derived bioactive peptides obtained by fermentation with kefir grains enriched with selected yeasts.
      ], beverages, infant formulas, and chewing gums as nutritional supplements [
      • Marnila P.
      • Korhonen H.
      Milk and colostrum.
      ,
      • Anamika D.
      • Seth R.
      Studies on quality attributes of skimmed colostrum powder.
      ], white soft cheese [
      • El-Loly M.M.
      • Hassan L.K.
      • Farahat E.S.A.
      Impact of heat treatments and some technological processing on immunoglobulins of Egyptian buffalo’s milk.
      ] and traditional Indian dessert named Khess [
      • Poonia A.
      • Dabur R.S.
      Physico-chemical and sensory properties of khees obtained from buffalo and cow colostrum.
      ]. Too, models of double emulsion milk desserts were prepared with encapsulated colostrum to protect sensitive components (mainly Igs) and are used as a functional food for people who follow a certain diet and athletes [
      • Iveta K.
      • Kristina B.
      • Monika K.
      • Eva F.
      • Sarka H.
      • Ladislav C.
      • et al.
      The preparation of model w1/o/w2 double emulsion milk desserts with encapsulated colostrum.
      ]. Also, BC supplement products contain a large number of bioactive ingredients that have a role in improving human health, treating chronic diseases, physical and psychological stress as well as anti-aging [

      Wyatt DA. Anti-aging benefits of bovine colostrum. By Sovereign Laboratories Center for Nutritional Research, https://www.vibrantlifeinitiative.org/articles/AntiAging.pdf, Posted on 9/6/2016..

      ]. Besides, these products improve immune function and prevent inflammation post intense exercise that damages muscles, where it helps recover power and repair muscle damage [
      • Mizelman E.
      • Duff W.
      • Kontulainen S.
      • Chilibeck P.D.
      The Health Benefits of Bovine Colostrum. Ch 4.
      ].
      A more recent systematic review, Galdino et al. [
      • Galdino A.B.S.
      • Rangel A.H.N.
      • Buttar H.S.
      • Nascimento M.S.L.
      • Gavioli E.C.
      • Oliveira R.P.
      • et al.
      Bovine colostrum: benefits for the human respiratory system and potential contributions for clinical management of COVID-19.
      ] mentioned that colostrum and its components contribute as a non-drug alternative to the clinical management of CoVID-19. It can prevent infection with the virus and reduce the severity of symptoms; also its supplement products may have some positive effect as a preventive measure against viral infection, whereas strong evidence indicates that BC supplements contain biologically active compounds that played potential role in improving the severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Furthermore, in a recent study Mehra et al. [
      • Mehra R.
      • Singh R.
      • Nayan V.
      • Buttar H.
      • Kumar N.
      • Kumar S.
      • et al.
      Nutritional attributes of bovine colostrum components in human health and disease: A comprehensive review.
      ] reported that the BC supplementation products are used for preventing and treating neurological disorders (dementia, cognition, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease), cardiovascular diseases, immune-related, allergy problems, skin disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, gut microbial, type-2 diabetes, and improved athletic performance. Also, Davison, [
      • Davison G.
      The use of bovine colostrum in sport and exercise.
      ] reviewed that supplementation-bovine colostrum products have strong evidence of their benefits in gut permeability, damage markers, immune function and illness risk, especially during periods of intense training, and increase systemic IGF-1 levels.

      5. Colostrum marketing

      Now in some countries, colostrum shopping has grown constantly in normal or online markets where novel functional foods lead the global market, due to its excellent benefits not only as an immune health-promoting diet but also as an alternative to the treatment and protection of many human diseases. In Brazil, it is now used to improve diseases of the digestive, respiratory, inflammation and bone growth. BC is available on the world market in a natural form or dietary supplement products for human, animals, sports nutrition, infant formulas, functional foods, chewed gums, liquids, lozenges, concentrates, powders, tablets, capsules, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Likewise, BC is the most popular used for supplements for human consumption in food or in medicinal therapy as pasteurized or dried pills and powders due to its rich nutrients and Igs values that increase immunity, help fight infection and promote better gut health [
      • Mehra R.
      • Singh R.
      • Kumar N.
      • Kumar S.
      • Kumar H.
      Composition, properties and health attributes of bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Silva E.G.S.O.
      • Rangel A.H.N.
      • Murmam L.
      • Bezerra M.F.
      • de Oliveira J.P.F.
      Bovine colostrum: Benefits of its use in human food.
      ,].
      Due to the commercial colostrum products that have widely difference bioactivities. BC can be used in many food technologies to increase their nutritional and biological benefits. It is used in the diets of all ages (children, adults, elderly), athletics and for many patients [
      • Ahmadi M.
      • Velciov A.B.
      • Scurtu M.
      • Ahmadi T.
      • Olariu L.
      Benefits of bovine colostrum in nutraceutical products.
      ]. However, it is used to feeding infants, adults, and mainly medical purposes to treat cancer, allergies, gastrointestinal, and immune system diseases [
      • Conte F.
      • Scarantino S.
      A study on the quality of bovine colostrum: physical, chemical and safety assessment.
      ].
      Commercially colostrum products (nutraceuticals) are manufactured in tablet, capsules, and powder formed by several companies, whereas Biostrum Nutritech Pvt. Ltd. and Mt. used buffalo colostrum, APS BioGroup used cow colostrum, but Capra Wholefood Nutritionals used goat colostrum. More recently, the colostrum of cows and goats was used for animal and athlete nutrition, infant formulas, dietary supplements, functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Wherever, the functional foods sector market captured a greater share in 2018, while the dietary supplement market is expected to grow at a faster annual rate during 2019–2027 [].
      The powders and tablets are the dominant sectors in 2019 (about 66.4%) of the market, while liquid and capsules (about 14.8 and 18.7%) respectively. Functional foods are a major sector in BC global market, followed by sports nutrition and pharmaceuticals that account 20.9 and 10.0% in order [,]. Similarly, immune milk products have several beneficial applications in human and animal health to prevent infection and control many diseases [
      • Korhonen H.
      • Marnila P.
      • Gill H.S.
      Bovine milk antibodies for health.
      ,
      • Lilius E.M.
      • Marnila P.
      The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections.
      ]. Colostrum or IM can be natural, healthy, and safely functional foods and has broad market prospects [
      • Mehra R.
      • Marnila P.
      • Korhonen H.
      Milk immunoglobulins for health promotion.
      ]. Many commercial IM preparations are offered in the market like Gastrogard product (Northfield Laboratories, Oakden, Australia) to prevent diarrhea due to rotavirus in children; STOLLAIT IMMUNE MILK (New Zealand) to lower high cholesterol values and relieve arthritis symptoms; PRO-IMMUNE 99 (GalaGen Inc., Minnesota, USA) to prevent scarring due to E. coli in young calves; Biotest Pharm GmbH (Frankfurt, Germany) to treat acute diarrhea in patients with AIDS and Viable Bioproducts Ltd. (Turku, Finland) produces sterile filtered colostrum to provide growth and antimicrobial agents through strenuous physical activity for athletes [
      • Pakkanen R.
      • Aalto J.
      Growth factor and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum.
      ,
      • Stephan W.
      • Dichtelmuller H.
      • Lissner R.
      Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy.
      ,
      • Mero A.
      A dietary supplement based on bovine colostrum increases the serum IGF-1 concentration in male athletes during a short-term strength, and speed training period.
      ]. Today, raw IM as a commercial drink is widely available in French market for the benefit of whole people, and it grants protection short-term from human infection against coronavirus and used as an alternative until vaccines are available [
      • Hansen F.S.
      • Hogan A.S.
      • Tobin J.
      • Rasmussen T.J.
      • Larsen B.L.
      • Wiking L.
      Microfiltration of raw milk for production of high-purity milk fat globule membrane material.
      ].

      6. Conclusion

      Mammals' colostrum composition is markedly different from normal milk, containing unique components rich in nutritional, macro-and micronutrients, and many biologically active, and growth factors. All newborn mammals need colostrum to develop the digestive system, resist microbial infections, and boost immune systems to promote lifelong health and immunity; it is a divine immune gift from the Creator. So it is one of the best natural food supplements consumed within various life stages. Recent evidence indicates that the colostrum is used to treat cancer, AIDS, polio, heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Likewise, colostrum and its components contribute as a non-drug alternative to the clinical management of CoVID-19. Also, LF and its supplements are effective in preventing and treating people with coronavirus infection. Furthermore, hyper-immune colostrum or milk collected from animals immunized by SARS-CoV-2 (for example, but not limited), where raw IM as a commercial drink is widely available in French market for the benefit of whole people, it succeeded and granted protection short-term from human infection. Future studies are required as clinical trials on human or animal nutrition to attain the use of BC or its products as a therapeutic ability with optimum dosage and long-term safety.

      Ethical approval statement

      Ethical approval was not required.

      Funding source

      There was no funding received for this study.

      Conflict of interest

      The author declares that there is no competing interest.

      Acknowledgements

      None.

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